Indian Scientist And Their Inventions Pdf

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This list of Indian inventions and discoveries details the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of India, including the ancient, classical and post-classical nations in the subcontinent historically referred to as India and the modern Indian state. It draws from the whole cultural and technological history of India, during which architecture , astronomy , cartography , metallurgy , logic , mathematics , metrology and mineralogy were among the branches of study pursued by its scholars.

Science has a great impact on our lives. Without science, we won't be able to enjoy many things that make our modern world possible. Every year several discoveries and inventions took place and so the same way in that had given an edge to science and technology. List of Inventions and Discoveries in Science and Technology. Let us tell you that it has a new security feature that will protect against duplicity.

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For information about applying for a patent, view upcoming webinar dates and past presentation slides and videos. Department of Commerce. The role of the USPTO is to grant patents for the protection of inventions and to register trademarks. It serves the interests of inventors and businesses with respect to their inventions and corporate products, and service identifications. In discharging its patent related duties, the USPTO examines applications and grants patents on inventions when applicants are entitled to them; it publishes and disseminates patent information, records assignments of patents, maintains search files of U.

The Office supplies copies of patents and official records to the public. It provides training to practitioners as to requirements of the patent statutes and regulations, and it publishes the Manual of Patent Examining Procedure to elucidate these. Similar functions are performed relating to trademarks.

The USPTO also disseminates patent and trademark information that promotes an understanding of intellectual property protection and facilitates the development and sharing of new technologies worldwide.

Some people confuse patents, copyrights, and trademarks. Although there may be some similarities among these kinds of intellectual property protection, they are different and serve different purposes.

A patent for an invention is the grant of a property right to the inventor, issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Generally, the term of a new patent is 20 years from the date on which the application for the patent was filed in the United States or, in special cases, from the date an earlier related application was filed, subject to the payment of maintenance fees.

Under certain circumstances, patent term extensions or adjustments may be available. What is granted is not the right to make, use, offer for sale, sell or import, but the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing the invention. A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or device that is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others.

A servicemark is the same as a trademark except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product. Trademark rights may be used to prevent others from using a confusingly similar mark, but not to prevent others from making the same goods or from selling the same goods or services under a clearly different mark.

Copyright is a form of protection provided to the authors of "original works of authorship" including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished. The Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to reproduce the copyrighted work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, or to display the copyrighted work publicly.

The copyright protects the form of expression rather than the subject matter of the writing. For example, a description of a machine could be copyrighted, but this would only prevent others from copying the description; it would not prevent others from writing a description of their own or from making and using the machine.

Copyrights are registered by the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress. The Constitution of the United States gives Congress the power to enact laws relating to patents, in Article I, section 8, which reads "Congress shall have power. The first patent law was enacted in The patent laws underwent a general revision which was enacted July 19, , and which came into effect January 1, It is codified in Title 35, United States Code.

See Public Law , Stat. The patent law specifies the subject matter for which a patent may be obtained and the conditions for patentability.

The law establishes the United States Patent and Trademark Office to administer the law relating to the granting of patents and contains various other provisions relating to patents. The patent law specifies the general field of subject matter that can be patented and the conditions under which a patent may be obtained.

These classes of subject matter taken together include practically everything that is made by man and the processes for making the products. The Atomic Energy Act of excludes the patenting of inventions useful solely in the utilization of special nuclear material or atomic energy in an atomic weapon. See 42 U. Interpretations of the statute by the courts have defined the limits of the field of subject matter that can be patented, thus it has been held that the laws of nature, physical phenomena, and abstract ideas are not patentable subject matter.

A patent cannot be obtained upon a mere idea or suggestion. The patent is granted upon the new machine, manufacture, etc. A complete description of the actual machine or other subject matter for which a patent is sought is required.

In order for an invention to be patentable it must be new as defined in the patent law, which provides that an invention cannot be patented if:. There are certain limited patent law exceptions to patent prohibitions 1 and 2 above. Effective filing date of the claimed invention: This term appears in patent prohibitions 1 and 2. For a U. Similarly, for a U. Even if the subject matter sought to be patented is not exactly shown by the prior art, and involves one or more differences over the most nearly similar thing already known, a patent may still be refused if the differences would be obvious.

The subject matter sought to be patented must be sufficiently different from what has been used or described before that it may be said to be non-obvious to a person having ordinary skill in the area of technology related to the invention.

For example, the substitution of one color for another, or changes in size, are ordinarily not patentable. Congress established the United States Patent and Trademark Office to issue patents on behalf of the government. The revision of the patent laws enacted in reorganized the Patent Office and designated the official in charge as Commissioner of Patents.

The Patent Office remained in the Department of State until when it was transferred to the Department of Interior. In it was transferred to the Department of Commerce where it is today.

The USPTO administers the patent laws as they relate to the granting of patents for inventions, and performs other duties relating to patents. Applications for patents are examined to determine if the applicants are entitled to patents under the law and patents are granted when applicants are so entitled. The USPTO publishes issued patents and most patent applications 18 months from the earliest effective application filing date, and makes various other publications concerning patents. The USPTO also records assignments of patents, maintains a search room for the use of the public to examine issued patents and records, and supplies copies of records and other papers, and the like.

Similar functions are performed with respect to the registration of trademarks. As head of the Office, the Director superintends or performs all duties respecting the granting and issuing of patents and the registration of trademarks; exercises general supervision over the entire work of the USPTO; prescribes the rules, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, for the conduct of proceedings in the USPTO, and for recognition of attorneys and agents; decides various questions brought before the Office by petition as prescribed by the rules; and performs other duties necessary and required for the administration of the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

The work of examining applications for patents is divided among a number of examining technology centers TCs , each TC having jurisdiction over certain assigned fields of technology. Each TC is headed by group directors and staffed by examiners and support staff. The examiners review applications for patents and determine whether patents can be granted.

An appeal can be taken to the Patent Trial and Appeal Board from their decisions refusing to grant a patent, and a review by the Director of the USPTO may be had on other matters by petition. In addition to the examining TCs, other offices perform various services, such as receiving and distributing mail, receiving new applications, handling sales of printed copies of patents, making copies of records, inspecting drawings, and recording assignments.

At present, the USPTO has over 11, employees, of whom about three quarters are examiners and others with technical and legal training. Patent applications are received at the rate of over , per year. Design, plant, and provisional applications are not subject to the additional non-electronic filing fee and may continue to be filed by mail or hand-delivery without additional charge.

See the information available at www. Box Alexandria, VA If a mail stop is appropriate, the mail stop should also be used. Mail addressed to different mail stops should be mailed separately to ensure proper routing. For example, after final correspondence should be mailed to. Patent and Trademark Office P. Correspondents should be sure to include their full return addresses, including zip codes.

Follow-on correspondence filed by anyone other than an EFS-Web Registered eFiler must be sent by mail or hand-delivered to the address specified in the paragraph above.

Applicants and attorneys are required to conduct their business with decorum and courtesy. Papers presented in violation of this requirement will be returned.

Separate letters but not necessarily in separate envelopes should be written for each distinct subject of inquiry, such as assignments, payments, orders for printed copies of patents, orders for copies of records, and requests for other services. None of these inquiries should be included with letters responding to Office actions in applications. When a letter concerns a patent application, the correspondent must include the application number consisting of the series code and the serial number, e.

When a letter concerns a patent other than for purposes of payment of a maintenance fee , it should include the name of the patentee, the title of the invention, the patent number, and the date of issue. An order for a copy of an assignment should identify the reel and frame number where the assignment or document is recorded; otherwise, an additional charge is made for the time consumed in making the search for the assignment.

Applications for patents, which are not published or issued as patents, are not generally open to the public, and no information concerning them is released except on written authority of the applicant, his or her assignee, or his or her attorney, or when necessary to the conduct of the business of the USPTO.

Patent application publications and patents and related records, including records of any decisions, the records of assignments other than those relating to assignments of unpublished patent applications, patent applications that are relied upon for priority in a patent application publication or patent, books, and other records and papers in the Office are open to the public.

The Office cannot respond to inquiries concerning the novelty and patentability of an invention prior to the filing of an application; give advice as to possible infringement of a patent; advise of the propriety of filing an application; respond to inquiries as to whether, or to whom, any alleged invention has been patented; act as an expounder of the patent law or as counselor for individuals, except in deciding questions arising before it in regularly filed cases.

Information of a general nature may be furnished either directly or by supplying or calling attention to an appropriate publication. The Scientific and Technical Information Center is open to the public from 8 a. A numerical sequence patent backfile from to is available on microfilm. Patents from forward may be found using a variety of the patent database available on workstations.

Official Gazettes, Annual Indexes of inventors , the Manual of Classification and its subject matter index, and other search aids are available in various formats. Patent assignment records of transactions affecting the ownership of patents, microfilmed deeds, and indexes are also available. The Public Search Facility is open from 8 a. Monday through Friday except on federal holidays. Research assistance is offered between the hours of 8 a. Monday through Friday. Self-service access is permitted between 5 p.

Many inventors attempt to make their own search of the prior patents and publications before applying for a patent. An inventor may make a preliminary search through the U. An inventor may also employ patent attorneys or agents to perform the preliminary search.

This search may not be as complete as that made by the USPTO during the examination of an application, but only serves, as its name indicates, a preliminary purpose. For this reason, the patent examiner may, and often does, reject claims in an application on the basis of prior patents or publications not found in the preliminary search.

Those who cannot come to the Public Search Facility may order from the USPTO copies of lists of original patents or of cross-referenced patents contained in the subclasses comprising the field of search, or may inspect and obtain copies of the patents at a Patent and Trademark Resource Center.

14 Indian Scientists Who Changed The World. And Things You Probably Didn’t Know About Them!

Science plays an integral role in our day-to-day lives. Have you ever imagined what would we be doing if none of these things were invented? Kalam started his career by designing a small helicopter for the Indian Army. Dr kalam, born on October 15, left millions of people in shock as his soul departed on July 28 last year. When he passed away, the kind of outpouring in his honour this country witnessed is almost unprecedented. He also served as the 11th President of India from to Kalam advocated plans to develop India into a developed nation by in his book India


list the contributions of India to the world in the field of Mathematics and Science. • discuss the contributions made to knowledge by ancient Indian scientists like.


Science and Technology 2019: Inventions and Discoveries

Posted by Karishma Dewri Jan 23, Articles. Science is an inevitable part of life. India as a developing country has a vast history of science and technology. So, TM has enlisted 10 such outstanding scientists and their contributions to science and technology and also in the development of the nation:.

For information about applying for a patent, view upcoming webinar dates and past presentation slides and videos. Department of Commerce. The role of the USPTO is to grant patents for the protection of inventions and to register trademarks.

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History of science: The first scientist

Not all of history's most significant scientists were college graduates when they began their works. In fact, history is full of scientists who have shaped the world due to their work as teenagers. If they were disregarded simply because of their age, many things we take for granted today may not exist.

Har Gobind Khorana

How often do we take out the time to think about those extra ordinary minds who made life easier for us? Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He was the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam.

Я спас вас, сделав это заранее. Можешь представить себе последствия, если бы это обнаружилось, когда Попрыгунчик был бы уже внедрен. - Так или иначе, - парировала Сьюзан, - теперь мы имеем параноиков из Фонда электронных границ, уверенных, что черный ход есть во всех наших алгоритмах.

Простите. Я был ослеплен своими амбициями. Ее тревога не была напрасной. Дэвид в опасности… или того хуже. Быть может, уже поздно.


enumerate the important achievements of some of the great Indian scientists of Besides Crescograph and other Bose instruments, his wireless inventions too.


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Дэвид Беккер стоял в центре пустого зала и думал, что делать. Весь вечер оказался сплошной комедией ошибок. В его ушах звучали слова Стратмора: Не звони, пока не добудешь кольцо. Внезапно он почувствовал страшный упадок сил. Если Меган продала кольцо и улетела, нет никакой возможности узнать, где оно .

ГЛАВА 76 У подъезда севильского аэропорта стояло такси с работающим на холостом ходу двигателем и включенным счетчиком. Пассажир в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, вглядевшись сквозь стеклянную стену аэровокзала, понял, что прибыл вовремя. Он увидел светловолосую девушку, помогающую Дэвиду Беккеру найти стул и сесть. Беккера, по-видимому, мучила боль. Он еще не знает, что такое настоящая боль, подумал человек в такси. Девушка вытащила из кармана какой-то маленький предмет и протянула его Беккеру. Тот поднес его к глазам и рассмотрел, затем надел его на палец, достал из кармана пачку купюр и передал девушке.

Он искал нужные слова. - У вас есть кое-что, что я должен получить. Эти слова оказались не самыми подходящими. Глаза немца сузились. - Ein Ring, - сказал Беккер.  - Du hast einen Ring. У вас есть кольцо.

List of Indian inventions and discoveries

Тучный немец, помахавший у него под носом рукой и сказавший на ломаном английском: Проваливай и умри. - С вами все в порядке? - спросила девушка, заметив, что он переменился в лице. Беккер не мог оторвать глаз от ее руки. У него кружилась голова. Слова, которые он прочитал, были теми же, что произнес немец: ПРОВАЛИВАЙ И УМРИ.

Сьюзан проследовала. Охранник залюбовался Сьюзан, шедшей по бетонной дорожке. Он обратил внимание, что сегодня взгляд ее карих глаз казался отсутствующим, но на щеках играл свежий румянец, а рыжеватые до плеч волосы были только что высушены. От нее исходил легкий аромат присыпки Джонсонс беби.

Ошеломленный потерей жены и появлением на свет неполноценного, по словам медсестер, ребенка, которому скорее всего не удастся пережить ночь, он исчез из больницы и больше не вернулся. Энсея Танкадо отдали в приемную семью. Каждую ночь юный Танкадо смотрел на свои скрюченные пальцы, вцепившиеся в куклу Дарума note 1и клялся, что отомстит - отомстит стране, которая лишила его матери, а отца заставила бросить его на произвол судьбы.

 - Потом в его голосе зазвучали зловещие нотки.  - Но как только я узнаю, что вы следите за мной, я немедленно расскажу всю эту историю журналистам. Я расскажу, что Цифровая крепость - это большая липа, и отправлю на дно все ваше мерзкое ведомство.

 Боже, вы, кажется, сумели прочесть. Он посмотрел еще внимательнее. Да, он сумел прочитать эти слова, и их смысл был предельно ясен. Прочитав их, Беккер прокрутил в памяти все события последних двенадцати часов.

All Nobel Prizes in Physics

 Она не испанка? - спросил Беккер.

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