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- Space Structures: Principles and Practice
Buckminster Fuller is responsible for coining the word Tensegrity and for doing important early work on this topic.
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Tensegrity , tensional integrity or floating compression is a structural principle based on a system of isolated components under compression inside a network of continuous tension , and arranged in such a way that the compressed members usually bars or struts do not touch each other while the prestressed tensioned members usually cables or tendons delineate the system spatially. The term was coined by Buckminster Fuller in the s as a portmanteau of "tensional integrity".
Because of these patterns, no structural member experiences a bending moment and there are no shear stresses within the system.
This can produce exceptionally strong and rigid structures for their mass and for the cross section of the components. The loading of at least some tensegrity structures causes an auxetic response and negative Poisson ratio , e. A conceptual building block of tensegrity is seen in the Skylon.
Six cables , three at each end, hold the tower in position. The three cables connected to the bottom "define" its location. The other three cables are simply keeping it vertical. A three-rod tensegrity structure shown to the right builds on this simpler structure: the ends of each green rod look like the top and bottom of the Skylon.
While three cables are the minimum required for stability, additional cables can be attached to each node for aesthetic purposes or to build in additional stability. For example, Snelson's Needle Tower uses a repeated pattern built using nodes that are connected to 5 cables each. Eleanor Heartney points out visual transparency as an important aesthetic quality of these structures.
The roof uses an inclined surface held in check by a system of cables holding up its circumference. Tropicana Field , home of the Tampa Bay Rays major league baseball team, also has a dome roof supported by a large tensegrity structure.
A multiple-mast, cable-stay structure based on the principles of tensegrity, it is currently the world's largest tensegrity bridge. Since the early s, tensegrities have also attracted the interest of roboticists due to their potential to design lightweight and resilient robots.
Numerous researches have investigated tensegrity rovers, bio-mimicking robots, and modular soft robots. The most famous tensegrity robot is the Super Ball,  a rover for space exploration using a 6-bar tensegrity structure , currently under developments at NASA Ames.
Biotensegrity, a term coined by Dr. Stephen Levin, is the application of tensegrity principles to biological structures. The musculoskeletal system maintains tension in a continuous network of muscles and connective tissues,  while the bones provide discontinuous compressive support. Even the human spine , which seems at first glance like a stack of vertebrae resting on each other, is actually a tensegrity structure.
Donald E. Ingber has developed a theory of tensegrity to describe numerous phenomena observed in molecular biology. Furthermore, geometric patterns found throughout nature the helix of DNA , the geodesic dome of a volvox , Buckminsterfullerene , and more may also be understood based on applying the principles of tensegrity to the spontaneous self-assembly of compounds, proteins,  and even organs.
This view is supported by how the tension-compression interactions of tensegrity minimize material needed to maintain stability and achieve structural resiliency. Tensional forces naturally transmit themselves over the shortest distance between two points, so the members of a tensegrity structure are precisely positioned to best withstand stress.
For this reason, tensegrity structures offer a maximum amount of strength. In embryology, Richard Gordon proposed that Embryonic differentiation waves are propagated by an 'organelle of differentiation'  where the cytoskeleton is assembled in a bistable tensegrity structure at the apical end of cells called the 'cell state splitter'.
The origins of tensegrity are controversial. In , artist Kenneth Snelson produced his innovative "X-Piece" after artistic explorations at Black Mountain College where Buckminster Fuller was lecturing and elsewhere. Some years later, the term "tensegrity" was coined by Fuller, who is best known for his geodesic domes. Throughout his career, Fuller had experimented with incorporating tensile components in his work, such as in the framing of his dymaxion houses.
Snelson's innovation spurred Fuller to immediately commission a mast from Snelson. In , Fuller developed a tensegrity- icosahedron based on the technology, and he and his students quickly developed further structures and applied the technology to building domes. After a hiatus, Snelson also went on to produce a plethora of sculptures based on tensegrity concepts.
His main body of work began in when a pivotal exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art took place. Snelson's best known piece is his meter-high Needle Tower of The tensegrity icosahedron, first studied by Snelson in ,  has struts and tendons along the edges of a polyhedron called Jessen's icosahedron. It is a stable construction, albeit with infinitesimal mobility. Place a strut of length 2 l in the plane of each cube face, such that each strut is parallel to one edge of the face and is centered on the face.
Moreover, each strut should be parallel to the strut on the opposite face of the cube, but orthogonal to all other struts. The coordinates of the other strut ends vertices are obtained by permuting the coordinates, e. The distance s between any two neighboring vertices 0, d , l and d , l , 0 is. The relation tells us there are two possible values for d : one realized by pushing the struts together, the other by pulling them apart.
However both sets of coordinates lie along a continuous family of positions ranging from the cuboctahedron to the octahedron as limit cases , described by H. Coxeter  and later called the "jitterbug motion" by Buckminster Fuller.
Since the tensegrity icosahedron represents an extremal point of the above relation, it has infinitesimal mobility: a small change in the length s of the tendon e. Proto-Tensegrity Prism by Karl Ioganson, [gallery 1]. Tensegrity Icosahedron, Buckminster Fuller , [gallery 2]. Tensegrity Tetrahedron, Francesco della Salla, [gallery 3].
Kenneth Snelson 's Needle Tower art sculpture. Dissipate , an hourglass tower art sculpture including tensegrity structure, constructed at AfrikaBurn , , a Burning Man regional event. The tensegrity structure provides structural compliance absorbing landing impact forces and motion is applied by changing cable lengths, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Structural principle based on the use of isolated components in compression inside a net of continuous tension. For the movement system created by Carlos Castaneda, see Tensegrity Castaneda.
A tensegrity dome made of garden stakes and nylon twine built in the yard of a house, Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture.
Servicio de Publicaciones Universidad de Cantabria. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 18 June Tensegrity, The New Biomechanics".
In Hutson, Michael; Ward, Adam eds. Oxford Textbook of Musculoskeletal Medicine. Oxford University Press. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology. January Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Archived from the original PDF on 15 May Composite Structures. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. The Hierarchical Genome and Differentiation Waves. Series in Mathematical Biology and Medicine. The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 28 March With an unusual mix of art and science, Vyacheslav Koleichuk resurrected a legendary exhibition of Constructivist art.
Skelton International Journal of Solids and Structures. Archived from the original PDF on 23 October University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 2 April New York: Dover.
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Download Space Structures - Principles And Practice- Subramanian Narayan - Volulmul 2.doc
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Tensegrity , tensional integrity or floating compression is a structural principle based on a system of isolated components under compression inside a network of continuous tension , and arranged in such a way that the compressed members usually bars or struts do not touch each other while the prestressed tensioned members usually cables or tendons delineate the system spatially. The term was coined by Buckminster Fuller in the s as a portmanteau of "tensional integrity". Because of these patterns, no structural member experiences a bending moment and there are no shear stresses within the system.
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Space Structures: Principles and Practice
Reciprocity is a structural principle that has fascinated designers and builders throughout the world since ancient times. Further, no single text provides an exhaustive definition of the principle of structural reciprocity and it must be critically reconstructed from several different sources. This paper aims to fill in these gaps, providing a complete and annotated list of references, in which historical examples, as well as patents, research articles and terminological issues are discussed. A consistent definition of structural reciprocity is also proposed, and the promising developments of such a principle are outlined in order to guide designers and researchers in the future. The principle of reciprocity is based on the use of load-bearing elements which, supporting one another along their spans and never at the extremities, compose a spatial configuration with no clear structural hierarchy.
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Description: Space Structures are economical and aesthetically pleasing in appearance. They provide a unique solution for covering large column free areas.
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