Dictionary Of Metals And Alloys Pdf

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Dictionary Of Metal And Alloys

Sales Contacts. Cold cracking, embrittlement, slag trap. Not sure what all of this means? No problem, MetalTek International is here to help with our extensive Metallurgical glossary of industry terms. Once you have the terminology down, learn more about various casting processes such as the items listed to the right. Glossary terms and definitions provided courtesy of the Steel Founders' Society of America.

A change in properties of metals and alloys which occurs slowly at room temperature and will proceed rapidly at higher temperatures. The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change precipitation , but never involves a change in chemical composition of the metal or alloy.

In a foundry, the clearance specified; difference in limiting sizes, as minimum clearance or maximum interference between mating parts, as computed arithmetically.

A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is metal. Usually possesses qualities different from those of the components. Steel containing significant quantities of alloying elements other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus.

A form or stage of martensite of somewhat arbitrary distinction, probably representing the least developed and most distorted stage in the transformation of austenite to martensite at ordinary temperatures. Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature, followed by cooling at a suitable rate to lower the hardness or alter other mechanical or physical properties.

A secondary refining process in which argon, oxygen and nitrogen are injected into a molten bath of steel. The AOD process improves metal cleanliness and thus gives superior mechanical properties. Referring to metal which has not received finishing beyond gate removal or sandblasting or treatment of any kind including heat treatment after casting.

Similarly, as drawn, as forged, and as rolled. The face-centered-cubic phase of iron and steel, also referred to as gamma iron. In steel, a solid solution in which gamma iron is the solvent. Any steel containing sufficient alloy to produce a stable austenitic gamma iron crystalline structure at ambient temperatures. Carbonaceous materials such as plumbago, graphite or powdered coke usually mixed with a binder and frequently carried in suspension in water or other liquid; used as thin facing applied to surfaces of molds or cores to improved casting finish.

A process for cleaning or finishing metal objects by use of an air blast or centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles against the surface of the work pieces. Small, irregular particles of steel or iron are used as the abrasive in grit blasting, and steel or iron balls in shot blasting. The gas sources may be air, binder decomposition products or gases dissolved in the molten steel. Agitation of a bath of metal caused by the liberation of a gas beneath its surface.

May be deliberately induced by the addition of oxidizing material to a bath containing excess carbon. In the later case it is called a carbon boil and CO or CO2 are liberated. A projection of circular cross-section on a casting. Usually intended for drilling and tapping for attaching parts. A process carried out usually in a controlled furnace atmosphere, so surface does not oxidize, remaining bright.

Fracture with little or no plastic deformation. Smoothing machined holes or outside surfaces of castings by drawing, pushing on, or more broaches special cutting tools through the roughed out hole. A misnomer usually indicating metal penetration into sand resulting in a mixture of sand and metal adhering to the surface of a casting. Element occurring as diamond and as graphite. Carbon reduces many metals from their oxides when heated with the latter, and small amounts of it greatly affect the properties of iron.

Though classed as a nonmetallic, metallurgically, like boron, it is treated as a metal. A process in which a ferrous alloy is case hardened by first being heated in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition that the alloy absorbs carbon and nitrogen simultaneously, and then being cooled at a rate that will produce desired properties.

A form of case hardening that produces a carbon gradient inward from the surface, enabling the surface layer to be hardened by either quenching directly from the carbonizing temperature or by cooling to room temperature, then reaustenitizing and quenching.

A process of hardening a ferrous alloy so that the surface layer or case is made substantially harder than the interior or core. Typically case hardening process are carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding. A compound of iron and carbon commonly known as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical structure, Fe3C.

Cementite is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. Casting made in molds which are rotating so as to produce a centrifugal force in the molten metal.

A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen, usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed in fracture, as impact strength or notch toughness. Metal, graphite or carbon blocks that are incorporated into the mold or core to locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification and reduce shrinkage defects. The internal chill may then become a part of the casting. The force by which like particles are held together.

It varies with different metals and depends upon molecular arrangement due to heat treatment. Cracks in cold or nearly cold metal due to excessive internal stress caused by contraction.

Often brought about when the mold is too hard or casting is of unsuitable design. Casting defect caused by imperfect fusing or discontinuity of molten metal coming together from opposite directions in a mold, or due to folding of the surface.

It may have the appearance of a crack or seam with smooth, rounded edges. Plastic deformation of a metal at room temperature. Substantial increases in strength and hardness may occur. The requirement that a sand mixture break down under the pressure and temperatures developed during casting, in order to avoid hot tears or facilitate the separation of the sand and the casting.

A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, which is caused by highly directional solidification. Imposing a dead load on a small cylindrical test piece to determine compressive strength, expressed in pounds per sq. The transmission of heat, sound, etc. The quantity of heat that flows through a material measured in heat units per unit time per unit of cross-sectioned area per unit of length, electrical the quantity of electricity that is transferred through a material of know cross-section and length.

The volume change occurring in metals except antimony and bismuth and alloys on solidification and cooling to room temperature. Cracks formed by restriction of the metal while contracting in the mold; may occur just after solidification called a hot tear or a short time after the casting has been removed from the mold. The motion resulting in a fluid from the differences in density. In heat transmission, this meaning has been extended to include both forced and natural motion or circulation.

A furnace in which a gas, usually air, is blown through the molten bath or crude metal for the purpose of oxidizing impurities. A materials-handling device used usually with shakeout operations, to help clean sand from the castings as they are moved from one place to another in the foundry and as a feeding device to regulate materials flow. Operations with vibrational energy.

A curve showing the relationship between time and temperature during the solidification and cooling of a metal sample.

Since most phase changes involve evolution or absorption of heat, there may be abrupt changes in the slope of the curve. A process of cooling from an elevated temperature in a predetermined manner used to produce a desired microstructure to avoid hardening, cracking or internal damage. A performed sand aggregate inserted in a mold to shape the interior or that part of a casting which cannot be shaped by the pattern.

Core box and core dryers from the same pattern. One half is used as a half core box and a core drier. Sand for making cores to which a binding material has been added to obtain good cohesion and permeability after drying. Usually low in clays. A variation from specified dimensions of a cored section due to a change in position of the core or misalignment of cores in assembling. Variable composition due to the solidification characteristics of an alloy.

Typically these compositional differences occur on a micro scale, the distances between compositional extremes being controlled by the solidification structure of the alloy. A number expressing the maximum depth in mils to which corrosion would penetrate in one year on the basis of a linear extrapolation of the penetration occurring during the lifetime of a given test or service.

A protective blanket laid on a melt to exclude oxidizing atmosphere and in the case of magnesium to prevent its igniting.

Neutral covers simply protect metal from atmosphere; reacting covers contain an agent such as a deoxidizer. A core set in place during the ramming of a mold to cover and complete a cavity partly formed by the withdrawal of a loose part of the pattern.

Also used to form part or all of the cope surface of the mold cavity. A core placed over another core to create a flat parting line. A rupture occurring in a casting at or just below the solidifying temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal contraction stresses. The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is in the vicinity of the recrystallization temperature of the metal.

A view of the interior of an object that is represented as being cut in two, the cut surface presenting the cross section of the object.

A ceramic pot or receptacle made of materials such as graphite or silicon carbide, with relatively high thermal conductivity, bonded with clay or carbon, and used in melting metals; sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, steel, or wrought steel. A furnace fired with coke, oil, gas, or electricity in which metals are melted in a refractory crucible. A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern. A device using a thin abrasive wheel rotating at high speed to cut off gates and risers from castings, or in similar operations.

In layout and machining operations the reference points on a datum plane from which dimensions are measured. Loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium, usually oxygen, that reacts with carbon. Macroetching; etching for examination at a low less than 10X magnification, in a reagent that attacks the metal to a much greater extent than normal for microscopic examination. Gross features may be developed; i.

A discontinuity in the product whose severity is judged unacceptable in accordance with the applicable product specification.

An AGS test using an instrument, such as the Dietert Universal Sand-Strength Testing machine with deformation accessory , to determine the amount in inches that the sand specimen is compressed before it ruptures.

Dictionary of Metals.pdf

Metals Reference Book presents a convenient summary of data concerning to metallurgy. It discusses the guidance for dealing with laboratory accidents. It addresses the radioactive isotopes and radiation sources. Some of the topics covered in the book are the x-ray crystallography; excitation of x-rays; rotating crystal methods; powder methods; the wide angle method; the Laue method; the intensity of x-ray reflections; derivation of accurate unit cell dimensions in crystals; and the schoenflies system of point- and space-group notation. The Hermann-Mauguin system of point- and space-group notation is fully covered. The structures of metals, metalloids, and there compounds is discussed in detail.

alloys of steel. Each of the metals described previously can be combined to. make dozens or hundreds of alloys. One of the most interesting.

Alloy Definition and Examples in Chemistry

ASM Milestones. Strategic Plan. Career Hub. Customer Service. Technical Support.

Science of Engineering Materials pp Cite as. Metals and alloys form the largest group of engineering materials. Ready availability, ease of fabrication, and desirable mechanical and physical properties, are the principal attributes of metals. Broadly, metallic materials, may be divided into two large groups—fertous and non-ferrous, depending on whether the materials have iron or some other element as the principal constituent. Ferrous materials can be further grouped into wrought irons, cast irons, carbon steels, and alloy steels.

See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. Uploaded by Public Resource on January 20, Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass.

Metals Reference Book

Sales Contacts. Cold cracking, embrittlement, slag trap. Not sure what all of this means? No problem, MetalTek International is here to help with our extensive Metallurgical glossary of industry terms. Once you have the terminology down, learn more about various casting processes such as the items listed to the right. Glossary terms and definitions provided courtesy of the Steel Founders' Society of America.

По его тону ей стало ясно, что он все понял. Вся ложь Танкадо о невскрываемом алгоритме… обещание выставить его на аукцион - все это было игрой, мистификацией. Танкадо спровоцировал АНБ на отслеживание его электронной почты, заставил поверить, что у него есть партнер, заставил скачать очень опасный файл. - Линейная мутация… - еле выдавил Стратмор.

Его руки внезапно снова потянулись к ней в отчаянном порыве. Он целовал ее щеки. - Прости меня, - умолял. Сьюзан пыталась отстраниться, но он не отпускал. ТРАНСТЕКСТ задрожал, как ракета перед стартом.

Этого не может .

 - У Танкадо сказано: главная разница между элементами. - Господи Иисусе! - вскричал Джабба.  - Откуда нам знать, что для Танкадо было главной разницей.

5 Response
  1. Eustache M.

    No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner.

  2. Dexter D.

    Article Views are the COUNTER-compliant sum of full text article downloads since November (both PDF and HTML) across all institutions and individuals.

  3. Avery R.

    An alloy is a substance made by melting two or more elements together, at least one of them metal.

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