Factors Affecting Cognitive Development Of Child And Adolescent Pdf

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This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children 4—6 years were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention.

Parental and social factors in relation to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognitive function

Environmental influences on child mental health. Ricardo HalpernI; Amira C. I PhD. OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date review about environmental influences on child mental health, describing major risk factors and discussing recommendations for intervention by pediatricians.

This negative chain of events increases the risk for emotional problems. The negative effects on development and behavior result from the complex interaction between genetic, biological, psychological and environmental risk factors.

The main factors influencing the mental health of children are the social and psychological environment. The cumulative risk effect is more important in determining emotional problems in children than the presence of one single stressor, regardless of its magnitude. An adequate clinical investigation allows pediatricians to identify risk factors for the development of mental health problems and to ensure early intervention for children at risk.

Key words: Child mental health, risk factors, environment, child development, early intervention. Pediatricians have shown more interest in children's mental health in the last few years. The improvement in pediatrics leads us to a substantial change of paradigm in terms of child and adolescent health care. With various therapeutic instruments at hand, pediatricians could divert their attention away from the treatment of acute diseases, based on the hospital-based model, and provide the population with community-centered health care.

This way, by preventing diseases and promoting health, the coverage of this treatment could be extended. Synergistically, such measures further decreased infant mortality, revealing new problems, which were grouped under the name of "new morbidity" or "hidden morbidity," 7 defined in the s as a set of functional situations and environmental factors that affect child development.

The etiology of mental disorders in children often is attributed to these factors, but it is important to assess the multiple contexts in which these children live from birth to adolescence and adulthood.

Most studies have focused on individual behavioral processes that determine mental health, leaving aside the fact that the continuity of adverse environmental factors also determines changes in child development.

Environmental risk factors and mechanisms of action. Risk factor is defined as an element that determines an increased probability of problem occurrence. It can also be defined as a factor that increases vulnerability of a person or group to a certain disease or to health deterioration. According to Garbarino, 14 we should bear in mind two types of interactions when we talk about risk: firstly, the interaction of children as a biological organism with their immediate social environment, represented by the family microsystem , in which several processes, events and relationships occur; secondly, the interaction regarding the relationship of this system with the environment, in its broadest meaning exosystem or macrosystem through time chronosystem.

This model is shown in Figure 1 , which describes the relations between several systems that influence children's lives, according to Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of development.

Children have different opportunities in their development given by their personal attributes physical and mental and by the social environment in which they live. As several studies have shown, direct threats to development may occur due to acquired genetic and biological problems, although this may also occur due to the absence of expected opportunities. In short, the forms though which the risk of developmental disorders appear may be related to biological substrate, to direct or indirect continuity of environmental interference and cognitive processes.

Social and psychological factors are strongly associated with children's mental health, influencing more than the individual's intrinsic characteristics.

The several factors involved in the etiology of developmental and behavioral disorders rely more on the amount than on the nature of risk factors, since different risk factors produce similar results.

The Rochester Longitudinal Study, carried out by Sameroff et al. The multiple risk effect individually compared with each variable showed that high-risk children e. Some of these findings were also obtained by other studies on development, although some of them applied different methodologies, 28,29 which reinforces their importance.

These findings emphasize the need to identify the group of children at higher risk for emotional and behavioral problems. A recent study carried out by Harland et al. Several epidemiological studies demonstrated the relationship between low socioeconomic level and the occurrence of mental disorders in children.

However, it is essential to distinguish between two important concepts that are strongly associated with the etiology of mental health: social causation and social selection. The second one refers to a correlation between genetic and environmental aspects where susceptible individuals are pushed down to the poverty line or cannot come out of it, causing the environment to increase the risk of mental disease.

In a recent study, Costello et al. These are also the conclusions of one of the most important longitudinal studies on children's development and behavior, conducted by Werner et al. Perinatal complications, when analyzed individually, are not predictors of later physical and psychological developmental delays, but present an increased risk only if combined with adverse environmental situations.

On the other hand, poorer children with perinatal problems had a decrease between 19 and 37 points in their IQ, comparatively to poorer children without perinatal problems. In addition, low maternal education and the existence of disruptive families had independent effects on the etiology of psychosocial morbidity.

Besides the importance of being aware of the risks to which these children are submitted, we should also consider a person's ability to adapt to certain types of stress. Anthony 45 described the concept of "invulnerability" that certain children have to certain types of aggression. This adaptation has been called resiliency, which in physics, is the capacity of a material to return to its original shape or position after deformation that does not exceed its elastic limit.

Applying this example to individuals, it means a person's ability to bounce back from potentially negative events. This resiliency, however, is not totally present in children, and thus the child may be highly efficient in dealing with a stressful situation at school, and extremely inefficient in dealing with a situation that involves emotions.

These resilient people have personal attributes that act synergistically with the support received from the family and community. Nevertheless, the concept of resiliency runs counter to that of vulnerability, according to which certain children, for being exposed to the same stress, develop difficulties that interfere in their development and behavior. In the last few years, research about protective factors has changed in terms of methodology. While cross-sectional and retrospective studies have provided elements to define possible risk and protective factors,16 longitudinal and prospective studies have been used to document and analyze the short- and long-term effects of these factors on child's development and emotional functioning.

Interventions for mental health promotion in childhood. However, when studying populations with a low socioeconomic level, there seems to be an agreement on the benefits that these interventions provide, especially those that are maintained for a long period of time.

The larger impact occurs when interventions are initially made in the prenatal period and extend up to the first three years of life. One of the most important preventive measures that offers benefits in several areas is breastfeeding encouragement. In a cohort study carried out in Pelotas, southern Brazil, 1, newborn infants were followed up during their first year of life and the relationship between development and breastfeeding, among other variables, was assessed.

In addition to proven nutritional, psychological and immunological advantages, the evidence that breastfed children have a better performance in their future cognitive development is another reason for breastfeeding to be encouraged consistently.

Breastfeeding is not an innate behavior, but a habit that depends on learning and on the positive interaction between cultural and social factors. Intervention on the risk factors and mechanisms of action that influence children's mental health goes beyond the health sector.

Joint actions that involve the health sector, education, social assistance, and economics are increasingly needed, producing jobs and income for the families, infrastructure and leisure. Integrated projects aimed at promoting children's and adolescents' good development have been implemented in different communities, especially in the ones with lower socioeconomic level, showing a high probability of success. Even though most developmental and behavioral disorders may be recognized still in childhood, disorders such as speech delay, hyperactivity and emotional disorders are not commonly diagnosed before the third or fourth years of life.

The positive impact that early intervention programs have shown in terms of children's development and later school performance are a definitive justification for the necessity of early identification of children at risk for such delays. It is quite difficult to distinguish the actual impact of social variables from the impact of biological variables, since the relationship between them is quite complex, thus hindering the interpretation of results and consequently the intervention.

There are biological and environmental components in the etiology of mental disorders that affect the neural substrate. Brain dysfunctions are not the only etiology of psychopathology, but also have an impact that depends on the individual's environmental and social response, thus determining the risk for a negative result.

Environmental conditions such as no physical and social stimulus, poverty, stress, and prenatal exposure to drugs, may compromise brain functions in the presence of predisposing conditions. This combination makes brain function malleable enough to reduce the risk of mental disorders by changing the environment. For instance, the neurobiology of processes related to social anxiety shows the clear relationship between neurochemical susceptibility, which combined with an unfavorable exposure, causes a disruption in brain homeostasis.

Some theories exist on the neurobiology of drugs of abuse, suggesting that addiction is strongly associated with genetic mutations in neurotransmitters, making susceptible individuals abuse the substance in order to increase the levels of dopamine in their brain. According to Werner, 40 risk factors are not static elements and are only valid if they are linked to intervention programs, where there is a regular follow-up, offering health education, rehabilitation and treatment.

Despite the fact that early interventions in developing countries may be more difficult, several alternatives exist that could promote low-cost and community-based programs, involving children at risk for mental disorders.

The type of model depends on the target population. According to Thorburn, 75 there are nine available models, ranging from home visits on which occasion the mother is taught how to stimulate her child , day care center as a training center for caregivers , and school, with teacher's participation and parental training, and participation of the media, as described in Table 1.

Problems associated with children's mental health are not restricted to specialists' private practices, but are very common in primary care. Academic researchers are often found in specialized university centers and have sufficient knowledge about the distribution of health problems in the community.

On the other hand, they cannot observe treatment results and do not know much and are poorly interested in the interrelations of different types of health conditions in the use of services and in the subsequent effects of these services on health.

In their turn, clinicians, especially those with a well-defined clientele, which is continually followed up for several years such as pediatric clients , are exposed to the initial stages of the problem.

They have a privileged position in making a general assessment of the child in order to observe the interrelations of different symptoms of poor mental health, and follow the natural history of the dysfunction as the child grows up and develops.

Therefore, pediatricians play a key role in the intervention of mental and developmental disorders, since they often are the major source of information for parents about the development of their children, in addition to being the professionals that can identify risky situations earlier.

The involvement of pediatricians in health promotion of children and adolescents will certainly bring immediate effects on suffering and will improve the quality of life, in the medium and long run, reducing school failure, abusive use of drugs, violence, crime rate, and development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood.

Stewart-Brown S. Research in relation to equity: extending the agenda. Glied S, Cuellar AE. Trends and issues in child and adolescent mental health. Health Aff Millwood. Dryfoos JG. Adolescents at risk: a summation of work in the field: programs and policies. J Adolesc Health. Associations between different diagnostic approaches for child and adolescent psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.

Prevalence and risk factors of behavioral and emotional problems among Chinese children aged 6 through 11 years. Nikapota AD. Child psychiatry in developing countries. Br J Psychiatry. Psychopathology in pediatric primary care: the new hidden morbidity. Haggerty RJ. Expenditures for child health care. Child development: vulnerability and resilience. Soc Sci Med.

Sameroff JA.

Collaborative Mind Maps & Flow Charts

Learning to talk is one of the most visible and important achievements of early childhood. In a matter of months, and without explicit teaching, toddlers move from hesitant single words to fluent sentences, and from a small vocabulary to one that is growing by six new words a day. New language tools mean new opportunities for social understanding, for learning about the world, and for sharing experiences, pleasures and needs. Language development is even more impressive when we consider the nature of what is learned. It may seem that children merely need to remember what they hear and repeat it at some later time. But as Chomsky 1 pointed out so many years ago, if this were the essence of language learning, we would not be successful communicators.

Collaborative Mind Maps & Flow Charts

Environmental influences on child mental health. Ricardo HalpernI; Amira C. I PhD.

Metrics details. There is a well-established link between various measures of socioeconomic status and the schooling achievement and cognition of children. However, less is known about how cognitive development is impacted by childhood improvements in growth, a common indicator of child nutritional status. This study examines the relationship between socioeconomic status and child growth and changes in cognitive achievement scores in adolescents from resource-poor settings. Using an observational cohort of more than children from four low- and middle-income countries, this study examines the association between cognitive achievement scores and household economic, educational, and nutritional resources to give a more accurate assessment of the influence of families on cognitive development.

An estimated million children worldwide fail to meet their development potential due to poverty, poor health, and unstimulating environments. Missing developmental milestones has lasting effects on adult human capital. Africa has a large burden of risk factors for poor child development.

What Are the Factors Affecting Cognitive Development of Children

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Understanding health requires more than knowledge of the genome. Environmental factors regulate gene function through epigenetics. Maternal dietary patterns, physical activity, degree of weight gain, and body composition while pregnant will influence not only fetal growth, but also the infant's metabolic response to nutrients and energy.

Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology. Qualitative differences between how a child processes their waking experience and how an adult processes their waking experience are acknowledged Such as object permanence , the understanding of logical relations, and cause-effect reasoning in school-age children. Cognitive development is defined as the emergence of the ability to consciously cognize, understand, and articulate their understanding in adult terms. Cognitive development is how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of their world through the relations of genetic and learning factors. They are, reasoning, intelligence, language, and memory.


children's cognitive development (Crosnoe, Leventhal, Wirth, Pierce, & Pianta, nonshared environmental factors, i.e., those that differentially affect one twin and The manual of WPPSI-III reports evidence of high subtest reliability ( to Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, (4), –


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