Fluoride And Drugs Thesis Pdf

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DOI : The article discusses the basic properties of fluorine atom that have made it so useful in drug development. It presents several examples of therapeutically useful drugs acting against many life-threatening diseases along with the mechanism as to how fluorine influences the drug activity.

Size Range 20 to 34 , David Brunken-Deibert. Woolfork and David S.

The discovery of fluoride in dentistry has revolutionized treatment modalities with a new aspect of prevention and conservation of tooth structure coming into foreplay. Since then, there has been a lot of research on both topical and systemic fluoridation in an overzealous attempt to control the most debilitating dental problem of caries. Although topical fluoride is still being widely used as a preventive measure for dental caries, systemic administration of the same has gained major criticism worldwide due to the low margin of safety of fluoride and no control over the amount of individual intake when administered on a community level. This problem is more prevalent in countries with presence of natural fluoride belts that extend from Turkey to China and Japan through Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan increasing the chances of both dental and skeletal fluorosis and hence increasing the focus toward defluoridation.

Roles of Fluorine in Drug Design and Drug Action

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements, except for argon , neon , and helium. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite , the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in ; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting , the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in , fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis , a process still employed for modern production.

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Roles of Fluorine in Drug Design and Drug Action

Recently, epidemiological studies have suggested that fluoride is a human developmental neurotoxicant that reduces measures of intelligence in children, placing it into the same category as toxic metals lead, methylmercury, arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls. If true, this assessment would be highly relevant considering the widespread fluoridation of drinking water and the worldwide use of fluoride in oral hygiene products such as toothpaste. To gain a deeper understanding of these assertions, we reviewed the levels of human exposure, as well as results from animal experiments, particularly focusing on developmental toxicity, and the molecular mechanisms by which fluoride can cause adverse effects. Even for unusually high fluoride exposure levels, an MoE of at least ten was obtained. Furthermore, concentrations of fluoride in human plasma are much lower than fluoride concentrations, causing effects in cell cultures. In contrast, 21 of 23 recent epidemiological studies report an association between high fluoride exposure and reduced intelligence.

Fluorochemicals are a widely distributed class of compounds and have been utilized across a wide range of industries for decades. Given the environmental toxicity and adverse health threats of some fluorochemicals, the development of new methods for their decomposition is significant to public health. However, the carbon—fluorine C—F bond is among the most chemically robust bonds; consequently, the degradation of fluorinated hydrocarbons is exceptionally difficult. Here, metalloenzymes that catalyze the cleavage of this chemically challenging bond are reviewed. These enzymes include histidine-ligated heme-dependent dehaloperoxidase and tyrosine hydroxylase, thiolate-ligated heme-dependent cytochrome P, and four nonheme oxygenases, namely, tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent hydroxylase, Rieske dioxygenase, and thiol dioxygenase. While much of the literature regarding the aforementioned enzymes highlights their ability to catalyze C—H bond activation and functionalization, in many cases, the C—F bond cleavage has been shown to occur on fluorinated substrates.

Fluoride contamination has been recognised as one of the major problems worldwide, imposing a serious threat to human health and affecting the safety of drinking water. Adsorption is one of the widely considered appropriate technologies for water defluorination. The present study describes the preparation of a zirconium-based metal organic framework MOF adsorbent using a solvothermal method and its adsorption efficiency for removal of fluoride ions from water. It was found that the synthesized MOF showed the distinguishable octahedral shape particle with a lattice spacing of 0. Adsorption studies were carried out to study the defluorination effectiveness by varying contact time 30— min , adsorbent dose 0.

Fluoride in Quaternary groundwater aquifer, Nile Valley, Luxor, Egypt

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Ingestion of excess fluoride, most commonly in drinking-water affects the teeth and bones. It results in major health disorders like dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis. People exposed to large amounts of fluoride show dental effects much earlier than the skeletal effects.

Fluorine in medicinal chemistry

Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water.

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File Download FullText. Cheung, Y. Oral health issues in recovering drug addicts. DC Field Value Language dc. Methamphetamine has become the most abused psychotropic drug1.

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Больные на соседних койках начали приподниматься, чтобы разглядеть, что происходит. Беккер нервно посматривал на медсестру. Пожалуй, дело кончится тем, что его выставят на улицу.

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2 Response
  1. Tomocoge1984

    It has become evident that fluorinated compounds have a remarkable record in medicinal chemistry and will play a continuing role in providing lead compounds for therapeutic applications.

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