File Name: psychotherapy purpose process and practice .zip
First, links to A Course In Miracles books that are in the public domain….
- Psychotherapy: Purpose, Process and Practice: A Commentary on the Pamphlet [CD]
- PSYCHOTHERAPY: PURPOSE, PROCESS AND PRACTICE
Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be the most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available.
Psychotherapy: Purpose, Process and Practice: A Commentary on the Pamphlet [CD]
Evidence-based psychotherapies have been shown to be efficacious and cost-effective for a wide range of psychiatric conditions. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent worldwide and associated with high rates of disease burden, as well as elevated rates of co-occurrence with medical disorders, which has led to an increased focus on the need for evidence-based psychotherapies.
This chapter focuses on the current state of evidence-based psychotherapy. The strengths and challenges of evidence-based psychotherapy are discussed, as well as misperceptions regarding the approach that may discourage and limit its use. In addition, we review various factors associated with the optimal implementation and application of evidence-based psychotherapies.
Lastly, suggestions are provided on ways to advance the evidence-based psychotherapy movement to become truly integrated into practice. The online version of this article doi Psychiatric disorders are prevalent worldwide [ 1 ] and are associated with high rates of disease burden, including elevated rates of morbidity and mortality [ 2 , 3 ].
In addition, there is a high rate of co-occurrence between psychiatric and medical disorders [ 4 , 5 ]. When psychiatric disorders co-occur with medical problems, not only are the medical symptoms more problematic, but the treatment of the medical condition is often more complicated [ 6 ]. For example, there is often lowered levels of treatment adherence and higher levels of healthcare service utilization, with its associated costs [ 4 ].
Therefore, increasing attention has been paid to the need for evidence-based pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions for a range of psychiatric disorders [ 7 , 8 ].
These psychotherapies are efficacious, beneficial, and cost-effective for myriad psychiatric disorders [ 9 , 10 ]. Moreover, people prefer psychotherapy to pharmacological treatments [ 11 ]. Unfortunately, despite the sizable evidence base, there is a significant gap between the availability of effective psychotherapies and the delivery of such interventions in the community [ 12 ].
The roots of evidence-based medicine go back centuries [ 13 ]. Yet evidence-based practice EBP; i. This laid the groundwork for the adoption of EBP in medicine, as well as other healthcare professions. In the s, the phrase began to be used in relation to a clinical decision-making approach informed by published findings [ 13 — 15 ]. The term was first formally defined by Sackett, often viewed as the father of this movement, and his colleagues in The key steps of EBP in medicine include formulating the clinical question based on the presenting problem, critically evaluating the pertinent literature with regard to its validity and usefulness for a given patient, implementing the research findings in clinical practice, and evaluating the outcomes [ 18 ].
The American Psychological Association developed a policy on the EBP of psychotherapy [ 19 ] that follows the definition put forth by Sackett et al. The best research evidence refers to data from meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, effectiveness studies, and process studies, as well as information obtained from single-case reports, systematic case studies, qualitative and ethnographic research, and clinical observation.
This policy makes clear that the effectiveness of any psychotherapy is influenced by the unique characteristics of each patient, such as developmental history and life stage, personal problems, strengths, personality structure, functional status, readiness to change or engage in psychotherapy, degree of social support, and family and sociocultural factors.
One key goal of EBP psychotherapy is to maximize patient choice about options. Clinical decisions associated with evidence-based psychotherapies optimally are made collaboratively with the patient, based on the best available evidence, with attention to costs, benefits, available resources, and options [ 21 , 22 ]. Such decision-making involves ongoing monitoring and adjustment.
There are advantages of evidence-based psychotherapies for practitioners, clinical teams, and patients [ 18 ]. It has been argued that for practice to be ethical it is imperative that it is guided by the relevant data [ 23 ].
By incorporating research into clinical practice, providers use research-driven evidence rather than rely solely on personal opinion. When practiced appropriately, EBP can complement clinical expertise when making judgments.
Incorporating research inevitably promotes the development of guidelines, databases, and other clinical tools that can help clinicians make critical treatment decisions, particularly in community-based settings [ 24 ]. Applying evidence-based principles ensures that providers use the best existing evidence as a starting framework, while simultaneously affording them flexibility to individualize treatment.
More specifically, evidence-based practice ensures that providers critically assess the data available and apply it to individual patient circumstances. When the evidence is appraised and fully understood, providers can decide if and how to incorporate it into practice. In addition, using evidence-based psychotherapies helps providers determine treatment plans, including in situations in which there are limited data or experience [ 26 ].
In fact, in patients with multiple medical and psychiatric comorbidities, using evidence-based treatments offers providers a starting point to develop complex treatment plans [ 27 ]. One misperception of evidence-based psychotherapy use is that in order to be useful, the evidence must be from a randomized controlled trial, which is typically challenging for many fields but particularly for psychotherapies. In fact, the evidence supporting the wide variety of psychotherapies available can include numerous methodologies as long as the evidence is assessed and applied appropriately in clinical decision-making [ 25 ].
Ideally, practitioners who actively employ EBPs save time, money, and resources by avoiding treatments with little or questionable effectiveness for their patients. In addition, training in the use of myriad evidence-based psychotherapies ensures that providers are familiar with the state-of-the-field and have depth and diversity in their clinical practice.
Training in an EBP, coupled with an active and ongoing learning process, is required for professionals to facilitate patient change and other positive outcomes [ 28 , 31 ]. Ultimately, the goal of EBP is the promotion and implementation of psychotherapies that are safe, consistent, and cost-effective [ 32 ]. As a result, evidence-based psychotherapies are associated with higher quality and more accountability [ 29 ], as well as the enhancement of the health and well-being of the public [ 19 ].
Because providers adhere less to evidence-based methods over time, quality of care diminishes with increasing years of experience. In addition, providers with more experience may be less up to date with current knowledge, guidelines, or standards of care, and, as a result, their patients may have poorer treatment outcomes [ 33 ].
Despite the many strengths of using evidence-based psychotherapy, there are challenges that must be considered [ 30 , 34 ]. First, concerns have been raised about the generalizability of the findings, given that the conditions and characteristics of randomized controlled treatment outcome research versus those of real-world clinical practice differ significantly [ 34 ]. For example, research samples often under-represent minority populations or patients with comorbid conditions [ 35 ] and, as a result, evidence-based psychotherapies often are not effective for individuals with complex multimorbidities or from sociodemographic groups for which the intervention has yet to be tested [ 30 ].
In addition, many psychotherapy trials for depression and anxiety recruit participants with limited psychosocial stressors given their confounding nature.
However, in actual practice, most patients face these stressors and it is unclear how well the purported evidence-based psychotherapies will treat these individuals [ 34 ].
Second, there are a number of marked differences between the processes of commonly practiced psychotherapies and EBP. In addition, psychotherapies typically prioritize empowerment and supporting people in achieving their own treatment goals, whereas evidence-based approaches risk not attending to patients as agents of change or self-healers.
As another example, diverse forms of psychotherapy guided by myriad theoretical perspectives or a combination of such models are practiced. While there appears to be a divide between evidence-based research and practice and clinical application, evidence-based psychotherapies synthesize new knowledge when providers test evidence-based guidelines and adapt them to cohort specific circumstances. There are no agreed-upon criteria for determining if a psychotherapy is evidence-based or empirically supported and what is statistically significant and suggestive of empirical support may not be clinically relevant [ 12 , 30 , 34 ].
In addition, often times the randomized controlled trials compare an active intervention with a wait-list control or attention control condition that does not exist in the community. Until efficacy and effectiveness studies include treatment conditions that resemble practice in the real world, it is challenging to draw conclusions from the existing data that can meaningfully affect clinical practice [ 36 ].
Similarly, there are limited data regarding the mechanisms of change in an intervention that produce effective outcomes [ 37 ]. Professionals must have timely access to information for optimal implementation.
This is challenging in that there are often lags between conduction of research and publication, and then from publication to adoption into practice or policy. As with any research modality, evidence-based psychotherapies are subject to biases, such as sponsorship of research, methodologies used, subjects chosen, and publications, which may impact on the credibility of the particular treatment. Similarly, when evidence-based psychotherapies are applied too rigidly, there is risk of diminishing their value, particularly if applied to patients for whom effectiveness will be limited, causing the psychotherapy and policy to be called into question.
Such over-reliance on rules may result in psychotherapeutic practice that is management driven, rather than patient-centered [ 30 ]. Clinicians using evidence-based psychotherapies must maintain up-to-date knowledge of the latest evidence supporting current or new methods, which, of course, takes a considerable amount of time.
Providers must have adequate training to identify and implement the most appropriate psychotherapy for a patient [ 38 ]. Other components, such as database and journal access, in addition to training, can be costly and challenging to locate for more remote clinicians. Resistance to using evidence-based psychotherapies results from clinicians and patients, often due to misunderstandings or misperceptions of the role of evidence-based psychotherapies [ 23 ].
Exposure to caricatured versions of evidence-based psychotherapies causes oversimplification of treatments that could easily discourage clinicians from utilizing them [ 39 ]. In reality, most guidelines, including those of the American Psychological Association [ 19 ], strongly recommend incorporation of clinical expertise and judgment into applicable practice of evidence-based psychotherapies.
Inflexibility in treatment protocols can lead to undesirable treatment outcomes [ 41 ]. As a result, Kendall et al. Such fidelity should relate to core components, rather than specific techniques, given that it is fidelity to core components during treatment that ensures good outcomes [ 43 ]. This plan is often viewed as a costing-cutting measure rather than a first-line modality.
However, appropriate use of evidence-based psychotherapy incorporates clinical expertise, which, by definition, requires incorporating patient values, preferences, and individual circumstances as integral parts of decision-making.
Incorporating evidence-based psychotherapy and clinical expertise creates the most effective means of treatment resulting in cost savings. Many clinicians hold a misperceived idea that the psychotherapy provided could never meet EBP criteria or standards, because data are insufficient or flawed. Treatments without sufficient evidence may be used with caution and careful monitoring and in accord with clinical expertise and patient preference.
In this section, attention is paid to various factors association with the optimal implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies. The factors addressed include relationships, fidelity, flexibility context, and providers.
While much attention has been paid to the value of evidence-based psychotherapies, there is considerable evidence that the therapeutic relationship makes substantial and consistent contributions to psychotherapy outcomes independent of the type of treatment [ 44 — 46 ].
The relationship acts in concert with treatment methods, patient characteristics, and practitioner qualities in determining effectiveness. In fact, the therapeutic relationship accounts for why patients improve, or fail to improve, at least as much as the particular treatment method. In addition, adapting or tailoring the therapeutic relationship to specific patient characteristics, including diagnoses, further enhances the effectiveness of treatment [ 44 ].
As a result, any discussion of evidence-based psychotherapies must include attention to evidence-based relationships. Demonstrably effective elements of the relationship include forming a positive therapeutic alliance in individual, youth and family psychotherapy; cohesion among patients in a group therapy setting; empathy; and eliciting patient feedback [ 44 ].
Elements that are probably effective include goal consensus, collaboration, and positive regard and support [ 44 ]. There is insufficient, yet promising, research on the elements of congruence or genuineness, repairing alliance ruptures, and managing countertransference.
Ineffective elements of the therapeutic relationship can curtail progress or contribute to negative outcomes [ 44 ]. Ineffective elements include inappropriate or ill-timed confrontations, negative processes, or making assumptions about the patient.
Similarly, rigidly adhering to a uniform procrustean bed of psychotherapy for all patients ineffectively binds the individual to ineffective treatment [ 44 ]. Efforts to promulgate evidence-based psychotherapy must include a focus on the therapeutic relationship. There are several recommendations to ensure the therapeutic relationship makes evidence-based psychotherapy as effective as possible.
First, a comprehensive understanding of effective and ineffective psychotherapy must consider how the therapeutic relationship acts in concert with other determinants and their optimal combinations. Practice and treatment guidelines should explicitly address therapy behaviors and qualities that promote a facilitative therapeutic relationship. This involves viewing psychotherapy as a process of change through structured curiosity and deep engagement in pattern identification and narrative reconstruction.
Psychotherapists must be caring, understanding, and accepting, which allows patients to internalize positive messages and enter the change process of developing self-awareness [ 47 ]. In addition, they must recognize that professional structures create credibility and clarity, but cast suspicion on care within the relationship.
Psychotherapists who forge productive relationships with their patients appreciate that psychotherapy progresses as a collaborative effort with discussion of differences between both parties.
PSYCHOTHERAPY: PURPOSE, PROCESS AND PRACTICE
The pamphlet scribed by Helen Schucman from Jesus, Psychotherapy: Purpose, Process, and Practice, is the subject of this line-by-line commentary. The major theme of the pamphlet is the application of the principles of A Course in Miracles toMoreThe pamphlet scribed by Helen Schucman from Jesus, Psychotherapy: Purpose, Process, and Practice, is the subject of this line-by-line commentary. The major theme of the pamphlet is the application of the principles of A Course in Miracles to psychotherapy. It thus summarizes the Courses teaching on healing, which consists of two people--here seen as therapist and patient--joining together in the name of Christ. Until God becomes real to the heart by the direct ministry of Christ as Savior, all His ways and works.
Create a Trial account and download a selection of resources for your personal use. Deliver great therapy online more easily with our tools and features. I manage a clinical team. Our comprehensive library of mental health resources will help you to deliver a productive session. Designed for professionals like you, and always in the perfect format for your clients. Every one of them easy-to-read and understand.
PSYCHOTHERAPY: PURPOSE, PROCESS AND PRACTICE An Extension of the Principles of A Course in Miracles Introduction Psychotherapy is the only form.
Evidence-based psychotherapies have been shown to be efficacious and cost-effective for a wide range of psychiatric conditions. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent worldwide and associated with high rates of disease burden, as well as elevated rates of co-occurrence with medical disorders, which has led to an increased focus on the need for evidence-based psychotherapies. This chapter focuses on the current state of evidence-based psychotherapy. The strengths and challenges of evidence-based psychotherapy are discussed, as well as misperceptions regarding the approach that may discourage and limit its use.
Try now for free, no credit card required
Since only the mind can be sick, only the mind can be healed. Only the mind is in need of healing. This does not appear to be the case, for the manifes-tations of this world seem real indeed. Sometimes he is able to start to open his mind without formal help, but even then it is always so me change in his percept ion of interpersonal relat ionships that enables him to do so. Sometimes he needs a more structured, extended relationship with an official therapist.
Do you like reading books??? Read this book immediately, lest you regret it!!! PDf free, 7.
Он быстро подошел к ним и остановился в нескольких сантиметрах от дрожащего Чатрукьяна. - Вы что-то сказали. - Сэр, - задыхаясь проговорил Чатрукьян.
- Это и есть их вес. - Тридцать секунд. - Давайте же, - прошептал Фонтейн.
Беккер посмотрел на ее лицо. В свете дневных ламп он увидел красноватые и синеватые следы в ее светлых волосах.
Turista, - усмехнулся. И прошептал чуть насмешливо: - Llamo un medico. Вызвать доктора. Беккер поднял глаза на усыпанное родинками старческое лицо.
Убийство азиата сегодня утром. В парке. Это было убийство - Ermordung.
Ей еще не приходилось слышать, чтобы он так .
Его темные глаза выжидающе смотрели на Сьюзан. - Мисс Флетчер, как вы полагаете, если это не ключ, то почему Танкадо обязательно хотел его отдать. Если он знал, что мы его ликвидируем, то естественно было бы ожидать, что он накажет нас, допустив исчезновение кольца. В разговор вмешался новый участник.
Здесь говорится о другом изотопе урана. Мидж изумленно всплеснула руками. - И там и там уран, но разный. - В обеих бомбах уран? - Джабба оживился и прильнул к экрану. - Это обнадеживает: яблоки и яблоки.
Абсурд! - отрезал Джабба.