File Name: international tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values 2017 .zip
- A glycaemic index compendium of non-western foods
- International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load ...
- International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values: 2008
Foods with a high glycemic index GI raise blood sugar quickly and may cause health issues if someone eats too many of them. Eating a low GI diet may help to prevent and manage diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A person may also manage their weight with a low GI diet as part of an overall healthful eating approach.
A glycaemic index compendium of non-western foods
The GI has proven to be a more use-ful nutritional concept than is the chemical classification of car-bohydrate as simple or complex, as sugars or starches, or asavailable or unavailable , permitting new insights into the rela-tion between the physiologic effects of carbohydrate-rich foodsand health.
Several prospective observational studies have shownthat the chronic consumption of a diet with a high glycemic load GI dietary carbohydrate content is independently associatedwith an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovas-cular disease, and certain cancers.
The revised table also lists theglycemic load associated with the consumption of specifiedserving sizes of different foods. Am J Clin Nutr; Twenty years have passed since the first index of the relativeglycemic effects of carbohydrate exchanges from 51 foods waspublished by Jenkins et al 1 in this Journal. Per gram of carbo-hydrate, foods with a high glycemic index GI produce a higherpeak in postprandial blood glucose and a greater overall blood glu-cose response during the first 2 h after consumption than do foodswith a low GI.
Despite controversial beginnings, the GI is nowwidely recognized as a reliable, physiologically based classifica-tion of foods according to their postprandial glycemic effect. In a committee of experts was brought together by theFood and Agriculture Organization FAO of the United Nationsand the World Health Organization WHO to review the avail-able research evidence regarding the importance of carbohy-drates in human nutrition and health 2.
The committeeendorsed the use of the GI method for classifying carbohydrate-rich foods and recommended that the GI values of foods be usedin conjunction with information about food composition to guide. InAustralia, official dietary guidelines for healthy elderly peoplespecifically recommend the consumption of low-GI cereal foodsfor good health 3 , and a GI trademark certification program isin place to put GI values on food labels as a means of helpingconsumers to select low-GI foods 4.
Commercial GI testing offoods for the food industry is currently conducted by manylaboratories around the world, including our own. Many recentpopular diet books contain extensive lists of the GI values ofindividual foods or advocate the consumption of low-GI, carbo-hydrate-rich foods for weight control and good health 5. Reliable tables of GI compiled from the scientific literatureare instrumental in improving the quality of research examiningthe relation between the dietary glycemic effect and health.
Thefirst edition of International Tables of Glycemic Index, publishedin this Journal in with entries 6 , has been cited as areference in many scientific papers. In particular, these tablesprovided the basis for the GI to be used a dietary epidemiologictool, allowing novel comparisons of the effects of differentcarbohydrates on disease risk, separate from the traditionalclassification of carbohydrates into starches and sugars.
Sev-eral large-scale, observational studies from Harvard University Cambridge, MA indicate that the long-term consumption of adiet with a high glycemic load GL; GI dietary carbohydratecontent is a significant independent predictor of the risk ofdeveloping type 2 diabetes 7, 8 and cardiovascular disease 9.
More recently, evidence has been accumulating that a low-GIdiet might also protect against the development of obesity 10,11 , colon cancer 12 , and breast cancer E-mail: j. In addition, higherblood HDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in patientsconsuming low-GI diets from the northern, eastern, and westernEuropean centers participating in the study Indeed, severalstudies have shown that the dietary GI is a good predictor ofHDL concentrations in the healthy population, whereas theamount and type of fat are not Thus, the GI has provento be a more useful nutritional concept than is the chemical clas-sification of carbohydrate as simple or complex, as sugars orstarches, or as available or unavailable , providing new insightsinto the relation between foods and health.
In parallel with these advances have been studies document-ing the importance of postprandial glycemia per se for all-causemortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in healthy popu-lations For example, in the Hoorn study there was a signi-ficant association between the 8-y risk of cardiovascular deathand 2-h postload blood glucose concentrations in subjectswith normal fasting glucose concentrations, even after adjust-ment for known risk factors Multiple mechanisms are prob-ably involved.
Recurring, excessive postprandial glycemia coulddecrease blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, increasetriglyceridemia, and also be directly toxic by increasing proteinglycation, generating oxidative stress, and causing transienthypercoagulation and impaired endothelial function 21, Ifpostprandial glycemia is indeed important, then dietary treat-ment for the prevention or management of chronic diseases mustconsider both the amount and type of carbohydrate consumed.
An issue that is still being debated, particularly within theUnited States, is whether the GI has practical applications for theclinical treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Threeintervention studies in adults and children with type 1 diabetesshowed that low-GI diets improve glycated hemoglobin concen-trations In subjects with cardiovascular disease, low-GIdiets were shown to be associated with improvements in insulinsensitivity and blood lipid concentrations 23, In addition,evidence from both short-term and long-term studies in animalsand humans indicates that low-GI foods may be useful for weightcontrol.
Laboratory studies examining the short-term satiatingeffects of foods have shown that low-GI foods are relatively moresatiating than are their high-GI counterparts Compared withlow-GI meals, high-GI meals induce a greater rise and fall inblood glucose and a greater rise in blood insulin, leading to lowerconcentrations of the bodys 2 main fuels blood glucose and fattyacids in the immediate postabsorptive period.
The reduced avail-ability of metabolic fuels may act as a signal to stimulate eat-ing It is also important to emphasize that many low-GIfoods are relatively less refined than are their high-GI counter-parts and are more difficult to consume. The lower energy densityand palatability of these foods are important determinants of theirgreater satiating capacity. In obese children, the ad libitum con-sumption of a low-GI diet has been associated with greater reduc-tions in body mass indexes However, some experts haveraised concerns about the difficulties of putting advice about GIvalues into practice and of the potentially adverse effects on foodchoice and fat intake.
For this reason, the American DiabetesAssociation does not recommend the use of GI values for dietarycounseling. However, the European Association for the Study ofDiabetes 28 , the Canadian Diabetes Association 29 , and theDietitians Association of Australia 30 all recommend high-fiber,low-GI foods for individuals with diabetes as a means of improv-ing postprandial glycemia and weight control. Therefore, the purpose of this revised table is tobring together all the relevant data published between and Table 1.
Log in Get Started. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values See Full Reader. Download for free Report this document. Embed Size px x x x x Transcript of International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values The committeeendorsed the use of the GI method for classifying carbohydrate-rich foods and recommended that the GI values of foods be usedin conjunction with information about food composition to guide food choices.
Printed in USA. Received November 20, Accepted for publication March 26,
International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load ...
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The role of dietary glycemic index GI and dietary glycemic load GL on metabolic syndrome MetS in youth populations remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association among dietary GI, dietary GL, and MetS and its components in Mexican adolescents. This study was conducted within the framework of the National Health and Nutrition Survey , a cross-sectional, probabilistic, population-based survey with a multistage stratified cluster sampling design. Dietary habits were assessed through a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. We defined MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria developed for adolescents.
International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values: 2008
To systematically tabulate published and unpublished sources of reliable glycemic index GI values. A literature search identified articles published between and Unpublished data were also included where the data quality could be verified. The data were separated into two lists: the first representing more precise data derived from testing healthy subjects and the second primarily from individuals with impaired glucose metabolism.
Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. Unpublished data were also included where the data quality could be verified. The data were separated into two lists: the first representing more precise data derived from testing healthy subjects and the second primarily from individuals with impaired glucose metabolism.
In instances where Glycemic Index GI values. Link to this page:. To avoid confusion, the could be verified. The data were separated into two lists: the first representing more precise data glucose scale is recommended for final re- derived from testing healthy subjects and the second primarily from individuals with impaired glucose metabolism.
Он был уже совсем. Правой рукой, точно железной клешней, он обхватил ее за талию так сильно, что она вскрикнула от боли, а левой сдавил ей грудную клетку. Сьюзан едва дышала. Отчаянно вырываясь из его рук, Сьюзан локтем с силой ударила Хейла.
Беккер изо всех сил старался удержаться на шоссе, не дать веспе съехать на обочину. Я должен добраться до ангара. Интересно, увидит ли пилот лирджета, что он подъезжает.
И всякий раз Танкадо хватался за грудь, падал и с выражение ужаса на лице навязывал кольцо ничего не подозревающим туристам. В этом нет никакого смысла, - размышляла. - Если он не знал, что мы его убиваем… Ничего не понятно. Слишком поздно. Мы упустили что-то очень важное.
Цезарь, объясняла она, был первым в истории человеком, использовавшим шифр. Когда его посыльные стали попадать в руки врага имеете с его секретными посланиями, он придумал примитивный способ шифровки своих указаний. Он преобразовывал послания таким образом, чтобы текст выглядел бессмыслицей.
Да, - сказал Беккер.
Беккер грохнулся на пол возле двери. Мостовая стремительно убегала назад в нескольких дюймах внизу. Он окончательно протрезвел. Ноги и плечо ныли от боли.
Шедшие мимо люди оборачивались, но Халохот не обращал на них внимания: еще секунда, и он исчезнет. Он ощупал пальцы жертвы, но не обнаружил никакого кольца. Еще. На пальцах ничего .
Высокооплачиваемые государственные служащие старались избегать демонстрации личного благосостояния. Для Сьюзан это не составляло проблемы: она была безмерно счастлива в своей скромной двухкомнатной квартире, водила вольво и довольствовалась весьма консервативным гардеробом. Но вот туфли - совсем другое .