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- Chemistry behind Cosmetics: An Extensive Review
- Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications
- The chemistry of cosmetics
- The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics
Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications covers the fundamental aspects of cosmetic science that are necessary to understand material development, formulation, and the dermatological effects that result from the use of these products. The book fulfills this role by offering a comprehensive view of cosmetic science and technology, including environmental and dermatological concerns. As the cosmetics field quickly applies cutting-edge research to high value commercial products that have a large impact in our lives and on the world's economy, this book is an indispensable source of information that is ideal for experienced researchers and scientists, as well as non-scientists who want to learn more about this topic on an introductory level. Chemical engineers, chemists, physical chemists and cosmetic chemists in cosmetics research and development, dermatologists, toxicologists.
Chemistry behind Cosmetics: An Extensive Review
Whatever the process one wishes to take, there is one goal in mind: covering up imperfections Figure 2. Most cosmetic products are complex mixtures of chemical compounds that are directly applied to the skin. Unlike pharmaceutical products, cosmetics are not intended to cure diseases.
However, modern cosmetics are often -functional. Thus, some cosmetic products contain quasi-drugs, although their effects on the body remain mild and gentle.
Because cosmetics are freely used by consumers with no daily-exposure limits, the absorption of quasi-drugs and other ingredients through the skin needs to be carefully controlled, which makes monitoring transdermal drug absorption one of the important subjects in cosmetic science. When seeking out personal care, consumers want the new and exciting, while their expectations for and of functional and efficacious ingredients and products grow. In addition, as a result of global economics, consumer frugality has become the new normal, and this, too, plays a role in what consumers expect from the performance of their products.
Consumers will continue to spend on beauty products, but as their spending power decreases, they're ever quicker to move on from a product they deem as not living up to its promises.
Consumers set the parameters and will continue to seek out the most effective beauty products for their needsand value is determined first on efficacy. On the face of it, reaching today's consumers and winning their buy for the long term seems an ever more daunting proposition, but their quest and hunger for ever more efficacious and intriguing products actually translates to more opportunities to innovate for new unmet needs.
Turning innovation into success, though, will truly depend on an open and honest conversation with consumerslistening to their needs and being as clear as possible about claims and the potential for any given product. Brand owners must convey the value of new ingredients, formulas and products through clear language, with explanations of benefits based on scientific studies or other trials.
Backing good ingredients and products by developing smart marketing campaigns that are able to convey appropriate expectations from the use of products will foster a significant connection with consumersand that translates to the growth of business. General Use of CosmeticsCosmetic is a Greek word which means to 'adorn' addition of something decorative to a person or a thing. It may be defined as a substance which comes in contact with various parts of the human body like skin, hair, nail, lips, teeth, and mucous membranes etc.
Cosmetic substances help in improving or changing the outward show of the body and also masks the odor of the body. It protects the skin and keeps it in good condition. In general, cosmetics are external preparations which are applied on the external parts the body.
Even in earlier days, men and women used to decorate their bodies for improvement of appearance. Men used leaves of vegetables and parts of animals whereas women use to wear colored stones and flowers round their neck and wrist. Gradually, they start using colored earth and ointments on their face and body.
Even bangles and necklace made of baked earth materials became very common among the people. Eye shadow were made of copper colored earth ore and lamp black colored earth while red color was used for dyeing of hair. Now days, cosmetics are considered as essential components in life.
They not only, attract the people towards it but also impart psychological effects. It has gained popularity in the last decades and its use has been increased exponentially both-in males and females Figure 5. The most popular cosmetics are hair dyes, powders and creams. Usually a liquid, cream, or powder.
This comes in powder, cream, and liquid forms. It is available in natural colors such as brown and black, but also comes in bolder colors such as blue, pink, or purple. There are many different formulas, including waterproof for those of us prone to allergies or sudden tears.
The use of this type of hair growth tonic promotes hair regeneration, hair growth and hair nourishment. Modern technology is using plant stem cells to influence the function of certain cells in our skin and hair follicles Figure 3. Also included in the general category of cosmetics are skin care products. These include creams and lotions to moisturize the face and body, sunscreens to protect the skin from damaging UV radiation, and treatment products to repair or hide skin imperfections acne, wrinkles, dark circles under eyes, etc.
Cosmetics can also be described by the form of the product, as well as the area for application. Cosmetics can be liquid or cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose; dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks . FigBeauty is in the eye of the beholder, and there is nothing better than a pair of gorgeous eyes . One drop per eye would block receptors in the muscles of the eye that constrict pupil size. As one might suspect, this comes at an immediate cost to vision, resulting in blurriness and inability to focus on close objects.
Though this would wear off over time, prolonged use of belladonna could cause permanent vision distortion or blindness. It also carried the side effect of increased heart rate because, let's not forget, this tincture was made of poison Exhibit 1.
Interesting facts from history of cosmetics , [64,65] Women are susceptible to the societal pressures of using cosmetics to beautify themselves. In their efforts to look beautiful, both men and women apply cosmetics to hide their flaws and accentuate their features. Cosmetics have been a part of human history as far back as the ancient Egyptians.
The ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks used various ingredients to soften, improve, exfoliate, and detoxify skin. The ancient Romans and Greeks used walnut extracts as hair dye, antimony a known toxic heavy metal as eye shadow, white lead carbonate as a skin lightener, charcoal crocodile excrement as a skin darkener, and cinnabar as rouge.
Atropa Belladona is a poisonous plant called deadly nightshade. The name belladonna comes from the Italian, meaning beautiful lady, originating either from its use as a facial cosmetic, or, more probably, from its use to increase pupil size in women because during the Renaissance the herb was used in eye-drops by women to dilate the pupils of the eyes to make them appear seductive Figure 4.
In Elizabethan England, dyed red hair comes into fashion. Society women wear egg whites over their faces to create the appearance of a paler complexion. Women in Ancient Egypt used kohl, a substance containing powdered galena lead sulphide-PbS to darken their eyelids, and Cleopatra is said to have bathed in milk to whiten and soften her skin.
By B. C men and women in China had begun to stain their fingernails with colors according to their social class. The Chinese stained their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax, and egg. Chou dynasty royals wear gold and silver, with subsequent royals wearing black or red. Lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails. Greek women used poisonous lead carbonate PbCO3 to achieve a pale complexion.
Clays were ground into pastes for cosmetic use in traditional African societies and indigenous Australians still use a wide range of crushed rocks and minerals to create body paint for ceremonies and initiations. The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast.
In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with eternal desire Primers are so beloved by experts because they can do so much more than just make foundation go on smoother.
Primers are sort of like insurance for makeup. Although they often wear many hatssmoothing, concealing, protecting and preppingtheir main roles are to keep makeup on longer and give skin a smooth, flawless finish. This creates another layer between skin to prevent acne and makeup clogging up pores.
Primer creates an even tone throughout the skin and makes makeup last longer. Primer is applied throughout the face including eyes, lips, and lashes. This product has a creamy texture and applies smoothly. Many makeup primers are formulated with silicone-based polymers, like dimethicone, because of their ultra-smoothing effects. Photoaged skin results from various environmental factors, most importantly chronic sun exposure.
The facial primer was shown to be effective and well tolerated for immediate and longterm improvement in the appearance of mild-tomoderate hyperpigmentation and fine lines associated with photodamage when used over a week period . Many people try to manage acne by squeezing pimples, following a thorough skin care routine or wearing foundation.
Others hope things will improve if they change their diet or expose their skin to sunlight. Concealer is often thicker and more solid than foundation, and provides longer lasting, more detailed coverage as well as creating a fresh clean base for all the rest of the makeup.
This product also brightens up the skin and applying under the foundation can remove blemishes and discoloration because of acne scars. In females, in particular, there is a need for cosmetic products that can effectively cover the signs of this highly visible skin condition to reduce the emotional impact of the disease.
Perhaps the most important type of concealer is the corrective type, and is most effective in a liquid formula, like La-Roche Posay Toleriane Teint Corrective Pen, which has corrective colors to help tone down ruddiness, fade the appearance of hyperpigmentation, and yes, even cover up any more irritating blemishes . At glamorous, Hollywood events, the -…. However, Girls and women often use concealer or foundation to cover up their pimples.
This makes them feel more comfortable in public. These are sold in a liquid, cream, or powder, or more recently in a mousse. Foundation provides sheer, matte, dewy or full coverage. Foundation primer is applied before foundation to fill out pores, create a dewy look or create a smoother finish. They usually come in cream formulas to be applied before foundation as a base.
The most classic form of foundation, liquid, offers medium to full coverage for all skin types, and is a sure-fire way to achieve a smooth base [2,. It can also be used to bake the foundation, so that it stays on longer and create a matte finish. Tinted face powders may be worn alone as a light foundation so that the full face does not look as caked-up as it could.
Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications
There are thousands of different cosmetic products on the market, all with differing combinations of ingredients. Cosmetics are not a modern invention. Humans have used various substances to alter their appearance or accentuate their features for at least 10, years, and possibly a lot longer. Women in Ancient Egypt used kohl, a substance containing powdered galena lead sulphide—PbS to darken their eyelids, and Cleopatra is said to have bathed in milk to whiten and soften her skin. By B.
The chemistry of cosmetics
The law does not require cosmetic products and ingredients, other than color additives, to have FDA approval before they go on the market, but there are laws and regulations that apply to cosmetics on the market in interstate commerce. FDA regulates cosmetics under the authority of these laws. In the United States, federal laws are enacted by Congress. In order to make the laws work on a day-to-day level, Congress authorizes certain government agencies.
According to IS , all the raw materials requiring test for heavy metals have been so tested and comply with the requirements, then the manufacturer may not test the finished cosmetic for heavy metals and arsenic. The Rule of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules has laid down restrictions on use of cosmetics containing dyes, colours and pigments other than those specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards IS: Part 1 as amended and Schedule Q. The Rule of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules prohibits use of lead and arsenic compounds in cosmetics for the purpose of colouring. Rule prohibits import of cosmetics in which a lead or arsenic compound has been used for the colouring purpose. Rule D and A prohibits manufacture and import respectively of cosmetics containing mercury compounds.
Беккер пожал плечами и вгляделся в надпись. - Да, их тут немало. - Я что-то не понимаю, - вмешался Фонтейн.
The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics
Это ты, приятель? - Он почувствовал, как рука незнакомца проскользнула к его бумажнику, чуть ослабив хватку. - Эдди! - крикнул. - Хватит валять дурака. Какой-то тип разыскивал Меган. Человек не выпускал его из рук.
С каких это пор заместитель директора начал действовать в обход фильтров. Сотрудникам лаборатории платили хорошие деньги, чтобы они охраняли компьютерные системы АНБ, и Чатрукьян давно понял, что от него требуются две вещи: высочайший профессионализм и подозрительность, граничащая с паранойей. Черт возьми! - снова мысленно выругался. - Никакая это не паранойя. Этот чертов компьютер бьется над чем-то уже восемнадцать часов.
Он заправил рубашку в брюки и оглянулся. Позади уже закрывались двери. Беккер понял, что, если его преследователь находится внутри, он в западне. В Севильском соборе единственный вход одновременно является выходом. Такая архитектура стала популярной в те времена, когда церкви одновременно служили и крепостями, защищавшими от вторжения мавров, поскольку одну дверь легче забаррикадировать. Теперь у нее была другая функция: любой турист, входящий в собор, должен купить билет. Дверь высотой в шесть метров закрылась с гулким стуком, и Беккер оказался заперт в Божьем доме.
PDF | On May 8, , Gaurav Kumar Sharma and others published Textbook of Cosmetic popular cosmetics are hair dyes, powders and creams. The final mixing of the ingredients for the manufacture of nail polishes is carried out The chemical reactions include the following reactions in alkaline pH.
Стратмор нередко пользовался этой привилегией: он предпочитал творить свое волшебство в уединении. - Коммандер, - все же возразила она, - это слишком крупная неприятность, и с ней не стоит оставаться наедине. Вам следовало бы привлечь кого-то. - Сьюзан, появление Цифровой крепости влечет за собой очень серьезные последствия для всего будущего нашего агентства.
Сьюзан встретилась с ним взглядом и прикусила губу. - Ничего, - выдавила. Но это было не. Терминал Хейла ярко светился. Она забыла его отключить.
Он называл ее… - Речь его стала невнятной и едва слышной. Медсестра была уже совсем близко и что-то кричала Беккеру по-испански, но он ничего не слышал. Его глаза не отрывались от губ Клушара.
Да, но я на всякий случай заглянул в Интернет, запустив поиск по этим словам. Я не надеялся что-либо найти, но наткнулся на учетную запись абонента. - Он выдержал паузу.
Да. Шестнадцать. - Уберите пробелы, - твердо сказал Дэвид. - Дэвид? - сказала Сьюзан.
И снова. - На маршруте двадцать семь их отсоединяют. - Панк снова сплюнул в проход.