Identify The Important Aesthetic And Intellectual Traditions Lesson Pdf

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From Thales, who is often considered the first Western philosopher, to the Stoics and Skeptics, ancient Greek philosophy opened the doors to a particular way of thinking that provided the roots for the Western intellectual tradition. Here, there is often an explicit preference for the life of reason and rational thought.

Philosophy makes a central contribution to the educational enterprise through its demands upon intellectual activity. Education in philosophy involves becoming aware of major figures and developments in the history of philosophy, learning up-to-date techniques and accepted answers to philosophical questions, and learning critical, interpretive, and evaluative skills that, in the overall scheme of things, may be considered to be of greatest value. Graduates of the philosophy program at James Madison University are expected to have come to terms with difficult texts dealing with advanced philosophical arguments.

The Aesthetics of Popular Music

In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty , distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art , which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. In the aesthetic theories developed in the Italian Renaissance , the highest art was that which allowed the full expression and display of the artist's imagination, unrestricted by any of the practical considerations involved in, say, making and decorating a teapot.

It was also considered important that making the artwork did not involve dividing the work between different individuals with specialized skills, as might be necessary with a piece of furniture, for example. Historically, the five main fine arts were painting , sculpture , architecture , music , and poetry , with performing arts including theatre and dance.

The old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created primarily for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness, specifically, painting, sculpture, drawing, watercolor, graphics, and architecture.

As far as the consumer of the art was concerned, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment usually referred to as having good taste , which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.

The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. In contemporary practice, these distinctions and restrictions have become essentially meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed.

The term is typically only used for Western art from the Renaissance onwards, although similar genre distinctions can apply to the art of other cultures, especially those of East Asia. The set of "fine arts" are sometimes also called the "major arts", with "minor arts" equating to the decorative arts.

This would typically be for medieval and ancient art. According to some writers, the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional "system of the arts" in the West before the eighteenth century.

Other traditional cultures still have a similar system. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, and the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life. The Ideology of the Aesthetic , though the point of invention is often placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance ; Anthony Blunt notes that the term arti di disegno , a similar concept, emerged in Italy in the midth century.

But it can be argued that the classical world , from which very little theoretical writing on art survives, in practice had similar distinctions. The names of artists preserved in literary sources are Greek painters and sculptors, and to a lesser extent the carvers of engraved gems. Several individuals in these groups were very famous, and copied and remembered for centuries after their deaths. The cult of the individual artistic genius, which was an important part of the Renaissance theoretical basis for the distinction between "fine" and other art, drew on classical precedent, especially as recorded by Pliny the Elder.

Some other types of object, in particular Ancient Greek pottery , are often signed by their makers or the owner of the workshop, probably partly to advertise their products.

The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around When it "fell out of fashion" as, by about , folk art was also coming to be regarded as significant. However, over the same period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the movement of prices in the art market was in the opposite direction, with works from the fine arts drawing much further ahead of those from the decorative arts.

In the art trade the term retains some currency for objects from before roughly and may be used to define the scope of auctions or auction house departments and the like. The term also remains in use in tertiary education , appearing in the names of colleges, faculties, and courses.

In the English-speaking world this is mostly in North America, but the same is true of the equivalent terms in other European languages, such as beaux-arts in French or bellas artes in Spanish. The conceptual separation of arts and decorative arts or crafts that have often dominated in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. But traditional Chinese art had comparable distinctions, distinguishing within Chinese painting between the mostly landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.

Although high status was also given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving , weaving, and embroidery, this by no means extended to the workers who created these objects, who typically remained even more anonymous than in the West. Similar distinctions were made in Japanese and Korean art. In Islamic art , the highest status was generally given to calligraphy , architects and the painters of Persian miniatures and related traditions, but these were still very often court employees.

Typically they also supplied designs for the best Persian carpets , architectural tiling and other decorative media, more consistently than happened in the West. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement , which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art often has a political and spiritual function.

As with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is also often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as textiles, fall in this category.

Painting as a fine art means applying paint to a flat surface as opposed for example to painting a sculpture, or a piece of pottery , typically using several colours.

Prehistoric painting that has survived was applied to natural rock surfaces, and wall painting, especially on wet plaster in the fresco technique was a major form until recently. Portable paintings on wood panel or canvas have been the most important in the Western world for several centuries, mostly in tempera or oil painting. Asian painting has more often used paper, with the monochrome ink and wash painting tradition dominant in East Asia. Paintings that are intended to go in a book or album are called "miniatures", whether for a Western illuminated manuscript or in Persian miniature and its Turkish equivalent, or Indian paintings of various types.

Watercolour is the western version of painting in paper; forms using gouache , chalk, and similar mediums without brushes are really forms of drawing. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts, and painters need drawing skills as well.

Common instruments include: graphite pencils , pen and ink , inked brushes , wax color pencils , crayons , charcoals , chalk , pastels , markers , stylus , or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning and creating comics. Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of stone or glass, called tesserae. They can be decorative or functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaic artist or a mosaicist.

Ancient Greeks and Romans created realistic mosaics. Mythological subjects, or scenes of hunting or other pursuits of the wealthy, were popular as the centrepieces of a larger geometric design, with strongly emphasized borders. Apse of the Santa Maria Maggiore church in Rome , decorated in the 5th century with this glamorous mosaic.

Printmaking covers the making of images on paper that can be reproduced multiple times by a printing process. It has been an important artistic medium for several centuries, in the West and East Asia. Major historic techniques include engraving , woodcut and etching in the West, and woodblock printing in East Asia, where the Japanese ukiyo-e style is the most important.

The 19th-century invention of lithography and then photographic techniques have partly replaced the historic techniques. Older prints can be divided into the fine art Old Master print and popular prints , with book illustrations and other practical images such as maps somewhere in the middle.

Except in the case of monotyping , the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print.

An individual print is also referred to as an impression. Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix. Common types of matrices include: plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving or etching ; stone, used for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts, linoleum for linocuts and fabric in the case of screen-printing. But there are many other kinds.

Multiple nearly identical prints can be called an edition. In modern times each print is often signed and numbered forming a "limited edition. A single print could be the product of one or multiple techniques. The Great Wave off Kanagawa ; —; color woodblock print;. Divan Japonais ; by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec ; —; Crayon, brush, spatter and transferred screen lithograph. Calligraphy is a type of visual art. A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner".

Fine art photography refers to photographs that are created to fulfill the creative vision of the artist. Fine art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism and commercial photography. Photojournalism visually communicates stories and ideas, mainly in print and digital media. Fine art photography is created primarily as an expression of the artist's vision, but has also been important in advancing certain causes.

Maxime Du Camp ; circa —; salted paper print;. Photo taken in Saint Petersburg Russia , from circa Architecture is frequently considered a fine art, especially if its aesthetic components are spotlighted — in contrast to structural-engineering or construction-management components.

Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations often are known primarily through their architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are important links in public consciousness, even when scholars have discovered much about past civilizations through other means.

Cities, regions, and cultures continue to identify themselves with, and are known by, their architectural monuments. The Parthenon in the Acropolis of Athens , dedicated to the goddess Athena. With some modern exceptions, pottery is not considered as fine art, but "fine pottery" remains a valid technical term, especially in archaeology. Even when, as with porcelain figurines, a piece of pottery has no practical purpose, the making of it is typically a collaborative and semi-industrial one, involving many participants with different skills.

Ancient Greek volute krater; BC; ceramic; height: 1. The David Vases ; the Yuan dynasty ; porcelain, cobalt blue decor under glaze; height: Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard or plastic material, commonly stone either rock or marble , metal , or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by carving ; others are assembled, built up and fired , welded , molded , or cast. Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts.

The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, and often represents the majority of the surviving works other than pottery from ancient cultures, though conversely, traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished almost entirely.

However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, and this has been lost. Conceptual art is art in which the concept s or idea s involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The inception of the term in the s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the s, its popular usage, particularly in the UK , developed as a synonym for all contemporary art that does not practice the traditional skills of painting and sculpture.

Poetry the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making" is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as sound symbolism, phonaesthetics and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

Aesthetics

Although Science for All Americans emphasizes what students should learn, it also recognizes that how science is taught is equally important. In planning instruction, effective teachers draw on a growing body of research knowledge about the nature of learning and on craft knowledge about teaching that has stood the test of time. Typically, they consider the special characteristics of the material to be learned, the background of their students, and the conditions under which the teaching and learning are to take place. Many of those principles apply to learning and teaching in general, but clearly some are especially important in science, mathematics, and technology education. For convenience, learning and teaching are presented here in separate sections, even though they are closely interrelated.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The preceding chapter explored implications of research on learning for general issues relevant to the design of effective learning environments. We now move to a more detailed exploration of teaching and learning in three disciplines: history, mathematics, and science. We chose these three areas in order to focus on the similarities and differences of disciplines that use different methods of inquiry and analysis. A major goal of our discussion is to explore the knowledge required to teach effectively in a diversity of disciplines. We noted in Chapter 2 that expertise in particular areas involves more than a set of general problem-solving skills; it also requires well-organized knowledge of concepts and inquiry procedures.

Ancient Greek Philosophy

Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa literally: "philosophy" , which refers to philosophy as well as logic , mathematics , and physics ; [1] and Kalam literally "speech" , which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic theology. The death of Averroes effectively marked the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Islamic school, and philosophical activity declined significantly in Western Islamic countries such as Islamic Iberia and North Africa.

Popular music is widely assumed to be different in kind from the serious music or art music that, until very recently, monopolized attention in philosophical discussions of music. In recent years, however, popular music has become an important topic for philosophers pursuing either of two projects. First, popular music receives attention from philosophers who see it as a test case for prevailing philosophies of music.

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Aesthetics may be defined narrowly as the theory of beauty, or more broadly as that together with the philosophy of art. The traditional interest in beauty itself broadened, in the eighteenth century, to include the sublime, and since or so the number of pure aesthetic concepts discussed in the literature has expanded even more. Traditionally, the philosophy of art concentrated on its definition, but recently this has not been the focus, with careful analyses of aspects of art largely replacing it.

John Dewey is well known for his work in logic, scientific inquiry, and philosophy of education. His fame is based largely on his membership in the school of American Pragmatists of which Charles Sanders Peirce and William James were the leading early figures. He has also had a great deal of influence in aesthetics and the philosophy of art. His work Art as Experience is regarded by many as one of the most important contributions to this area in the 20 th century. Yet it is not as widely discussed as that evaluation would indicate. There are several reasons for this.

The nature and scope of aesthetics

This article assumes that it is, holding that a philosophy of something can make recourse to conversations and practices in all the domains that are relevant to what it is of in this case dance so long as doing so aids our thinking about the meaning of that domain. The potential for dance philosophy is enormous, in part because dance itself is multifaceted enough to make it connect with many branches of philosophy. Indeed, dance has been practiced throughout history for artistic, educational, therapeutic, social, political, religious and other purposes. Of course, philosophical approaches once these are identified provide just some of the many ways to approach dance in order to better understand what it is and why it matters to us. There are theories and insights offered by dance cultural theorists, sociologists, historians, educators, anthropologists, ethnographers, practitioners, dance critics, evolutionary biologists, cognitive scientists, psychologists and others, for example, that are relevant to the questions asked by philosophers but which rely primarily on the methods of analysis culled from those fields.

Philosophy of Architecture

Aesthetics , also spelled esthetics , the philosophical study of beauty and taste. It is closely related to the philosophy of art , which is concerned with the nature of art and the concepts in terms of which individual works of art are interpreted and evaluated. To provide more than a general definition of the subject matter of aesthetics is immensely difficult. Indeed, it could be said that self-definition has been the major task of modern aesthetics. We are acquainted with an interesting and puzzling realm of experience: the realm of the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime , and the elegant; of taste, criticism , and fine art; and of contemplation, sensuous enjoyment, and charm.

In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty , distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art , which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. In the aesthetic theories developed in the Italian Renaissance , the highest art was that which allowed the full expression and display of the artist's imagination, unrestricted by any of the practical considerations involved in, say, making and decorating a teapot. It was also considered important that making the artwork did not involve dividing the work between different individuals with specialized skills, as might be necessary with a piece of furniture, for example. Historically, the five main fine arts were painting , sculpture , architecture , music , and poetry , with performing arts including theatre and dance.

Aesthetics , also spelled esthetics , the philosophical study of beauty and taste. It is closely related to the philosophy of art , which is concerned with the nature of art and the concepts in terms of which individual works of art are interpreted and evaluated. To provide more than a general definition of the subject matter of aesthetics is immensely difficult. Indeed, it could be said that self-definition has been the major task of modern aesthetics. We are acquainted with an interesting and puzzling realm of experience: the realm of the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime , and the elegant; of taste, criticism , and fine art; and of contemplation, sensuous enjoyment, and charm.

Сьюзан колебалась недолго, потом кивнула Соши.

 Вы сказали, что он приходил. Беккер услышал, как его собеседница листает книгу заказов. Там не окажется никакого Клауса, но Беккер понимал, что клиенты далеко не всегда указывают свои подлинные имена.

Все повернули головы к Сьюзан Флетчер, которая выпрямилась и поднялась со стула. Лицо ее побелело, глаза не отрываясь смотрели на застывший кадр, демонстрировавший неподвижное тело Дэвида Беккера, залитое кровью, брошенное на пол мини-автобуса. - Вы его убили! - крикнула.  - Вы его убили! - Она бросилась к экрану, протянула к нему руки.  - Дэвид… Все пришли в смятение.

 Извините, что я вас побеспокоил, но скажите: вы, случайно, не были сегодня на площади Испании. Глаза старика сузились. - Вы из муниципалитета.

Dewey’s Aesthetics
2 Response
  1. Leah G.

    importance of learning through aesthetic experiences as identified by Dewey. The very activity of a positive aesthetic experience in the classroom spurs intellectual, the Classroom Observation Manual in the Queensland School Reform Four teachers were selected to participate in this study – Ms History, Ms Science.

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