File Name: time study and method study .zip
- Time and Motion Study Volume 3 Issue 8
- Time Study: Definition, Objectives and Advantages (With Formula)
- Work Study
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Time and Motion Study Volume 3 Issue 8
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Het Patel. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. It is crucial to the welfare of industrial firm as well as for the economic progress of the country. High productivity refers to doing the work in a shortest possible time with least expenditure on inputs without sacrificing quality and with minimum wastage of resources.
Work-study forms the basis for work system design. The purpose of work design is to identify the most effective means of achieving necessary functions. This work-study aims at improving the existing and proposed ways of doing work and establishing standard times for work performance. Work-study is encompassed by two techniques, i. Method study is concerned with the reduction of the work content and establishing the one best way of doing the job whereas work measurement is concerned with investigation and reduction of any ineffective time associated with the job and establishing time standards for an operation carried out as per the standard method.
It is the concept that guides the management of production system. It is an indicator to how well the factors of production land, capital, labour and energy are utilised. It is the mentality of progress, of the constant improvements of that which exists. It is the certainty of being able to do better today than yesterday and continuously.
It is the constant adaptation of economic and social life to changing conditions. It is the continual effort to apply new techniques and methods. It is the faith in progress. Economists determine it from Gross National Product GNP , managers view it as cost cutting and speed up, engineers think of it in terms of more output per hour. But generally accepted meaning is that it is the relationship between goods and services produced and the resources employed in their production.
Product factor: In terms of productivity means the extent to which the product meets output requirements product is judged by its usefulness. The cost benefit factor of a product can be enhanced by increasing the benefit at the same cost or by reducing cost for the same benefit. Plant and equipment: These play a prominent role in enhancing the productivity.
The increased availability of the plant through proper maintenance and reduction of idle time increases the productivity. Productivity can be increased by paying proper attention to utilisation, age, modernisation, cost, investments etc. Technology: Innovative and latest technology improves productivity to a greater extent.
Automation and information technology helps to achieve improvements in material handling, storage, communication system and quality control. The various aspects of technology factors to be considered are: i Size and capacity of the plant, ii Timely supply and quality of inputs, iii Production planning and control, iv Repairs and maintenance, v Waste reduction, and vi Efficient material handling system. Material and energy: Efforts to reduce materials and energy consumption brings about considerable improvement in productivity.
Selection of quality material and right material. Control of wastage and scrap. Effective stock control. Development of sources of supply. Optimum energy utilisation and energy savings. Human factors: Productivity is basically dependent upon human competence and skill. Ability to work effectively is governed by various factors such as education, training, experience aptitude etc. Motivation of employees will influence productivity.
Work methods: Improving the ways in which the work is done methods improves productivity, work study and industrial engineering techniques and training are the areas which improve the work methods, which in term enhances the productivity. Management style: This influence the organizational design, communication in organization, policy and procedures.
A flexible and dynamic management style is a better approach to achieve higher productivity. Structural adjustments: Structural adjustments include both economic and social changes.
Economic changes that influence significantly are: 4. Natural resources: Manpower, land and raw materials are vital to the productivity improvement. Government and infrastructure: Government policies and programmes are significant to productivity practices of government agencies, transport and communication power, fiscal policies interest rates, taxes influence productivity to the greater extent.
The model can be applied to any manufacturing organization or service company. The word tangible here refers to measurable. The output of the firm as well as the inputs must be expressed in a common measurement unit.
The best way is to express them in rupee value. The impact of CAD on human productivity is significant for the advantages of CAD are: a Speed of evaluation of alternative designs, b Minimisation of risk of functioning, and c Error reduction. CAM is very much useful to design and control the manufacturing.
It helps to achieve the effectiveness in production system by line balancing. Computer integrated manufacturing: Computer integrated manufacturing is characterised by automatic line balancing, machine loading scheduling and sequencing , automatic inventory control and inspection. Robotics 2.
Laser technology 3. Modern maintenance techniques 4. Energy technology 5. Financial and non-financial incentives at individual and group level.
Employee promotion. Job design, job enlargement, job enrichment and job rotation. Worker participation in decision-making 5. Personal development. Material planning and control 2. Purchasing, logistics 3. Material storage and retrieval 4.
Source selection and procurement of quality material 5. Waste elimination. Methods engineering and work simplification 2. Job design evaluation, job safety 3. Human factors engineering. Value analysis and value enginering 2. Product diversification 3. Standardisation and simplification 4. Reliability engineering 5. Product mix and promotion. Management style 2.
Time Study: Definition, Objectives and Advantages (With Formula)
After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Definition of Time Study 2. Objectives of Time Study 3. Basic Procedure 4. Advantages 5. Limitations 6. Length 7.
A time and motion study or time-motion study is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth the same couple as is best known through the biographical film and book Cheaper by the Dozen. It is a major part of scientific management Taylorism. After its first introduction, time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times , while motion study evolved into a technique for improving work methods. The two techniques became integrated and refined into a widely accepted method applicable to the improvement and upgrading of work systems. This integrated approach to work system improvement is known as methods engineering  and it is applied today to industrial as well as service organizations, including banks, schools and hospitals. Time study is a direct and continuous observation of a task, using a timekeeping device e. The Industrial Engineering Terminology Standard, defines time study as "a work measurement technique consisting of careful time measurement of the task with a time measuring instrument, adjusted for any observed variance from normal effort or pace and to allow adequate time for such items as foreign elements, unavoidable or machine delays, rest to overcome fatigue, and personal needs.
Techniques for Production Efficiency pp Cite as. Of all the management techniques available today, work study is perhaps the best known and most widely used. The techniques of work study are concerned with the establishment of standards both in the manner of performing tasks and in the determination of the associated performance levels.
Он подошел к туалетному столику, где лежал бумажник. - Сколько. Беккер изобразил крайнюю степень негодования. - Вы хотите дать взятку представителю закона? - зарычал. - Нет, конечно. Я просто подумал… - Толстяк быстро убрал бумажник. - Я… я… - Совсем растерявшись, он сел на край постели и сжал руки.
Они работали .
Похоже, что-то стряслось, - сказала Сьюзан. - Наверное, увидел включенный монитор. - Черт возьми! - выругался коммандер. - Вчера вечером я специально позвонил дежурному лаборатории систем безопасности и попросил его сегодня не выходить на работу. Сьюзан это не удивило.
Sientate! - снова крикнул водитель. Беккер увидел в зеркале заднего вида разъяренное лицо, но словно оцепенел. Раздраженный водитель резко нажал на педаль тормоза, и Беккер почувствовал, как перемещается куда-то вес его тела.
Они были вместе уже два года, когда Дэвид вдруг сделал ей предложение. Это случилось во время поездки на уик-энд в Смоки-Маунтинс. Они лежали на широкой кровати под балдахином в Стоун-Мэнор.
Он и так скоро уйдет. Код, не поддающийся взлому. Сьюзан вздохнула, мысли ее вернулись к Цифровой крепости.
Подожди! - крикнул. - Подожди. Меган с силой толкнула стенку секции, но та не поддавалась.
Сьюзан, - сказал он торжественно. - Здесь мы в безопасности. Нам нужно поговорить. Если Грег Хейл ворвется… - Он не закончил фразу. Сьюзан потеряла дар речи.
- Я попросил Фонтейна передать его наследникам Танкадо. - Он взял ее руку и натянул что-то на палец. - Лжец, - засмеялась Сьюзан, открывая. - Я же угада… - Но она замолкла на полуслове. На ее пальце было не кольцо Танкадо.
И весь мир сразу же узнает о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ. Сьюзан вопросительно смотрела на .