Human Rights And Development Pdf

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Analyses on the contribution of human rights to economic growth contradict widespread discourses.

Global human rights and development GHRAD Human rights and development aims converge in many instances and are beneficial only to the government and not the people although there can be conflict between their different approaches.

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Sustainable Development Goals and Human Rights

We will not enjoy development without security, we will not enjoy security without development, and we will not enjoy either without respect for human rights. When the interrelationship between human rights and development co-operation was established in the s, the linkage between the two concepts was often connected with debates about the discontinuation of assistance to a country whose government grossly violated human rights and the punitive aspect of the linkage appeared to prevail in public opinion.

In the course of the s, the relationship between human rights and development co-operation began to take on a different form. The use of development co-operation to promote human rights through, e. Gradually, human rights became part of the dialogue between donors and recipients. Human rights were mentioned in the Preamble of the Convention and further elaborated upon in the joint declarations attached to it.

The conviction emerged that, in the long term, respect for human rights, the rule of law, political pluralism and effective, accountable political institutions form the basis of all development and equitable distribution. At the UN Millennium Summit in , world leaders agreed upon a set of time-bound and measurable goals and targets for combating poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women.

These goals aim at achieving measurable progress in a number of specific fields which are considered essential for human development and several lead to increased enjoyment of human rights, such as primary education. The goals provide a framework for development co-operation institutions to work coherently together towards a common end.

Close co-operation is imperative as a large majority of nations can only reach the MDGs with substantial support from outside. Progress toward the MDGs is being measured on a regular basis. The MDGs have led to increased emphasis on human rights-based approaches to development and poverty reduction.

A human rights-based approach deals with the substance of the development support initiatives, but focuses on the way in which development is being approached. Human rights are inherent to the person and belong equally to all human beings and their realisation has to be carried out as a participatory, egalitarian and transparent process. Human rights instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, provide a coherent framework for practical action at the international and domestic levels to reduce poverty.

The human rights-based approach to poverty reduction upholds the principles of universality and indivisibility, empowerment and transparency, accountability and participation. It focuses its policy, programming and capacity development support to this approach. In particular, it:. The human rights-based approach is a perspective and process that can lead more directly to increased enjoyment of human rights. One of the most important aspects of this approach is the increased recognition of poverty as one of the greatest barriers to the universal enjoyment of human rights.

In short, HRBA aims for sustainable outcomes by analysing and addressing the inequalities, discriminatory practices and unjust power relations which are often at the heart of development problems.

This placing of the individual at the centre of development and including human rights as one of the principal objectives of development co-operation is, however, the outcome of a crucial paradigm-shift in development thinking throughout the last decades. Christian Hainzl. Democracy and human rights have historically been regarded as very different phenomena occupying separate areas of the political sphere.

Democracy is generally connected with terms such as competitive elections, multi-party democracy and the separation of power. Moreover, democracy aims to empower the people in order to ensure that they rule society.

Human rights, on the other hand, aim to empower the individual and to guarantee the minimum necessary conditions for pursuing a distinctively human life. The ICCPR conferred binding legal status on the right of individuals to participate in the processes that constitute the conduct of public affairs, and further strengthened the protection accorded to participatory rights and freedoms.

Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of most communist regimes, the issue of democratisation has been prioritised and democracy and human rights are now seen as firmly standing together.

As a consequence, in the s, democracy became the theme of a number of international conferences. UN organs such as the Secretariat, the General Assembly and the former UN Commission on Human Rights and the Human Rights Council have commented on ways to strengthen democracy and several conferences on new or restored democracies have been convened in close co-operation with the UN.

The seminar was held in with the aim to facilitate a constructive dialogue on the interaction between democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Free, fair, and periodic multiparty elections are a key component of democracy, the rule of law and the protection of human rights.

They also have an autonomous value as a means of self-realization and recognition of human dignity. Periodic elections are essential to ensure the accountability of representatives for the exercise of the legislative or executive powers vested in them. The conduct of elections should be entrusted to an independent mechanism, as appropriate, one that is free from executive or other interference that could undermine the fairness of elections. There is no single formula for how to secure democracy.

Article 3. Transparency in government activities, probity, responsible public administration on the part of governments, respect for social rights, and freedom of expression and of the press are essential components of the exercise of democracy. The constitutional subordination of all state institutions to the legally constituted civilian authority and respect for the rule of law on the part of all institutions and sectors of society are equally essential to democracy.

Article 4. Although not yet in force, as of March , mention should also be made of the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance.

From a human rights perspective, democracy appears to play two different roles. On the one hand, democracy is considered the basic guarantor of human rights, on the other we are witnessing the merging of human rights with democracy. A democratic system of governance is not a panacea for all human rights abuses. Many serious human rights violations occur in democratic countries. Reports and jurisprudence of international human rights supervisory mechanisms prove that rights to freedom of opinion, expression, information, dissent, association and participation on an equal basis, and fair trial have been violated in virtually every country in the world.

However, respect for democratic principles is an indispensable condition for protection and promotion of all categories of rights and freedoms. Democratic principles have become a cornerstone of the human rights regime indispensable for the promotion of civil and political as well as economic, cultural and social rights.

Good governance is the transparent and responsible assertion of authority and use of resources by governments. Many states seek to promote good governance in their foreign policies and in relations with developing countries as well as with countries that are in a process of transition towards a market economy and democracy.

Good governance concerns the fulfilment of three elementary tasks of government: a to guarantee the security of all persons and of society itself; b to manage an effective framework for the public sector, the private sector and civil society; and c to promote economic, social and other aims in accordance with the wishes of the population.

Good governance and human rights are closely related. They can mutually reinforce each other in important ways; both are concerned with the rule of law and with equity in the outcomes of government policies and they overlap in specific areas. However, they remain distinct as good governance is about providing society with a framework for the effective and equitable generation and division of wealth while human rights seek to protect the inherent dignity of each and every individual.

In recent years, good governance has evolved from a topic of growing international debate to an explicit policy aim of many international organisations. These include, for example: financial transparency, the quality of the public sector, the effectiveness of public service delivery, the equity of taxation by the government and the quality of the legal and institutional framework that protects independent activities within the private sector and civil society.

It is also effective and equitable. And it promotes the rule of law. Good governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision-making over the allocation of development resources.

Concern for human rights and good governance is reflected, for example, in public management programmes, which address such issues as accountability, transparency, participation, decentralisation, legislative capacity and judicial independence. By linking good governance to sustainable human development, emphasising principles such as accountability, participation and the enjoyment of human rights, and rejecting prescriptive approaches to development assistance, the resolution stands as an implicit endorsement of the human rights-based approach to development.

Thus, governance and human rights are mutually reinforcing; human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of governments and other political and social actors but also provide a set of performance standards against which these actors can be held accountable.

In addition to the above-mentioned resolution, there exists a considerable body of human rights standards of direct relevance and applicability to questions of good governance. C further clarifies the nature of these obligations, setting forth important objectives for governance. Finally, an important aspect of good governance is the civilian control over military activities and expenditures; part of good governance might be the restriction of military spending.

Excessive military expenditure not only reduces funds available for other purposes, but can also contribute to increased regional tensions and violations of international law.

Furthermore, the military is often used for purposes of internal repression and denial of human rights. Development and human rights are intricately linked. Ultimately, both development and human rights movements share the same enthusiasm and motivation to promote the freedom, well-being and dignity of individuals.

On the one hand human development improves the capabilities and freedoms of individuals while on the other hand human rights provide the framework for a social arrangement that facilitates and secures capabilities and freedoms expressed by human development. Article 1 of the Declaration on the Right to Development states that:. The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realised.

Development is a comprehensive economic, social, cultural and political process, which aims at the constant improvement of the well being of the entire population and of all individuals on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution of benefits resulting there from.

Article 1 identifies the human person as the beneficiary of the right to development. It imposes obligations on individual states to ensure equal and adequate access to essential resources and on the international community to promote fair development policies and effective international co-operation.

The Commission also underlined the importance of structural measures to tackle the problems developing countries have to overcome. It should, however, be noted that the states themselves are primarily responsible for development. The international community can contribute to development but cannot take over that responsibility. The Working Group is mandated to a monitor and review progress made in the promotion and implementation of the right to development; b review reports and other information submitted by states and international or non-governmental organisations; and c submit reports to the Human Rights Council.

The Working Group holds annual sessions where it considers operational aspects of the right to development and discusses the progress made in implementing the right to development. The realization of the right to development is seen as the fulfilment of a set of claims by people, principally on their State but also on the society at large, including the international community, to a process that enables them to realize the rights and freedoms set forth in the International Bill of Human Rights in their totality as an integrated whole.

The right to development encompasses the right of the people to the outcomes of the process, i. It is to be facilitated and ensured by the corresponding duty-bearers on whom the claims are made, and who must adopt and implement policies and interventions that conform to the human rights norms, standards and principles.

In other words, both the ends and the means of such a process of development are to be treated as a right. Further, it has to be viewed as a composite right wherein all the rights, i.

The integrity of these rights implies that if any one of them is violated, the composite right to development is also violated. The indivisibility and interdependency of development and human rights has led many organisations to merge the two concepts in their work. The UNDP, for example, has stated that eliminating poverty, sustaining livelihood, promoting gender equality, protecting the environment, and capacity building will assist in mainstreaming human rights in the development sector.

The UNDP has concluded that a human rights approach to development will result in a mutually beneficial arrangement that enhances the achievement of universal human rights and development goals. Focuses on the capacities of duty-holders to meet their obligations to respect, protect and fulfil rights; as well as the capacities of rights-bearers to claim their rights. Enhances the synergy between poverty reduction and democratic governance.

Programmes for local governance, access to justice, capacity of human rights institutions, grassroots initiatives for community development, and human rights education will be included among pro-poor poverty programming.

Engages in the work of UN Treaty Bodies; particularly strives to incorporate selected and relevant recommendations that result from periodic reviews into its programme development.

Promotes and supports participatory assessment methodologies that link rights, obstacles and strengths around which poor people can secure their livelihood. Build in-house capacity to undertake multi-disciplinary review and analysis that maximise meaningful participation of the poor. Create a global partnership for development, with targets for aid, trade and debt relief. The development model after the Second World War focused on growth and development at the macro-economic level.

Human Rights and Development

This open access book analyses the interplay of sustainable development and human rights from different perspectives including fight against poverty, health, gender equality, working conditions, climate change and the role of private actors. Each aspect is addressed from a more human rights-focused angle and a development-policy angle. This allows comparisons between the different approaches but also seeks to close gaps which would remain if only one perspective would be at the center of the discussions. Specifically, the book shows the strong connections between human rights and the objectives of the Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in Moreover, several goals and targets of the Agenda correspond to already existing individual human rights obligations. The contributions of this volume therefore also address how the implementation of human rights and SDGs can reinforce each other, but also point to critical shortcomings of the different approaches. Furthermore he is the author of a study on Social Rights and International Development Springer

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Human Rights and Development: A Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation (2019)

The interministerial strategy Human Rights and Development aims to formalize the framework for French action to support the respect, protection and achievement of human rights through cooperation. In line with the new European Consensus on Development, it also aims to integrate the human rights-based approach in all development cooperation actions conducted by France. With this strategy, France intends to promote and reaffirm the indissociable link between human rights and sustainable development. While the fulfilment of human rights is the common ideal to be attained, it is also a means to achieve sustainable development. Development creates the conditions for the enjoyment of human rights for all, and respect for human rights contributes to a development that is truly sustainable.

Learn your 30 human rights in this free interactive online course. In , after King John of England violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which enumerates what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them was the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and to be protected from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law.

Human rights and development

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2 Response
  1. Huymilgdibig

    article addresses the challenges of integrating human rights in development and

  2. Molly A.

    We will not enjoy development without security, we will not enjoy security without development, and we will not enjoy either without respect for human rights.

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