Engineering Instrumentation And Control Pdf

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Advances in Control Instrumentation Systems

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Serif Black. Musango Lungu. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionControl in process industries refers to the regulation of all aspects of the process.

Precise control of level, temperature, pressure and flow is important in many process applications. This module introduces you to control in process industries, explains why control is important, and identifies different ways in which precise control is ensured.

Also, note the application boxes double-bordered boxes located throughout the module. Application boxes provide key information about how you may use your baseline knowledge in the field. When you see the workbook exercise graphic at the bottom of a page, go to the workbook to complete the designated exercise before moving on in the module. Workbook exercises help you measure your progress toward meeting each section's learning objectives.

Small changes in a process can have a large impact on the end result. Variations in proportions, temperature, flow, turbulence, and many other factors must be carefully and consistently controlled to produce the desired end product with a minimum of raw materials and energy.

Process control technology is the tool that enables manufacturers to keep their operations running within specified limits and to set more precise limits to maximize profitability, ensure quality and safety. The raw materials, which either pass through or remain in a liquid, gaseous, or slurry a mix of solids and liquids state during the process, are transferred, measured, mixed, heated or cooled, filtered, stored, or handled in some other way to produce the end product.

Process industries include the chemical industry, the oil and gas industry, the food and beverage industry, the pharmaceutical industry, the water treatment industry, and the power industry.

For example, factors such as the proportion of one ingredient to another, the temperature of the materials, how well the ingredients are mixed, and the pressure under which the materials are held can significantly impact the quality of an end product.

Manufacturers can also save money by reducing variability. For example, in a gasoline blending process, as many as 12 or more different components may be blended to make a specific grade of gasoline.

If the refinery does not have precise control over the flow of the separate components, the gasoline may get too much of the high-octane components. As a result, customers would receive a higher grade and more expensive gasoline than they paid for, and the refinery would lose money. The opposite situation would be customers receiving a lower grade at a higher price.

Process is defined as the changing or refining of raw materials that pass through or remain in a liquid, gaseous, or slurry state to 2. Which of these industries are examples of the process industry? Select all options that apply. Padding refers to the process of making a product of higher-quality than it needs to be to meet specifications. When there is variability in the end product i.

With accurate, dependable process control, the setpoint desired or optimal point can be moved closer to the actual product specification and thus save the manufacturer money. Increase EfficiencySome processes need to be maintained at a specific point to maximize efficiency. For example, a control point might be the temperature at which a chemical reaction takes place. Accurate control of temperature ensures process efficiency.

Manufacturers save money by minimizing the resources required to produce the end product. Ensure SafetyA run-away process, such as an out-of-control nuclear or chemical reaction, may result if manufacturers do not maintain precise control of all of the processg variables.

The consequences of a run-away process can be catastrophic. Precise process control may also be required to ensure safety. For example, maintaining proper boiler pressure by controlling the inflow of air used in combustion and the outflow of exhaust gases is crucial in preventing boiler implosions that can clearly threaten the safety of workers.

Control Theory BasicsThis section presents some of the basic concepts of control and provides a foundation from which to understand more complex control processes and algorithms later described in this module. Common terms and concepts relating to process control are defined in this section.

You feel uncomfortably cold, so you throw another log on the fire. Thisis an example of a control loop. In the control loop, a variable temperature fell below the setpoint your comfort level , and you took action to bring the process back into the desired condition by adding fuel to the fire. The control loop will now remain static until the temperature again rises above or falls below your comfort level.

The controller compares the reading to a predetermined value, in this case, the maximum tank level established by the plant operator, and finds that the values are equal. The controller then sends a signal to the device that can bring the tank level back to a lower level-a valve at the bottom of the tank. The valve opens to let some liquid out of the tank. Many different instruments and devices may or may not be used in control loops e. The three tasks associated with any control loop are measurement, comparison, and adjustment.

Is this statement true or false? Process Control TermsAs in any field, process control has its own set of common terms that you should be familiar with and that you will use when talking about control technology. In the example of you sitting by the fire, the process variable was temperature.

In the example of the tank in Figure 7. A temperature sensor can be used to help maintain the temperature at setpoint. The sensor is inserted into the process, and a contoller compares the temperature reading from the sensor to the setpoint.

Set points can also be maximum or minimum values. For example, level in tank cannot exceed 20 feet. A process variable is acondition that can change the process in some way. Imagine you are in a cabin in front of a small fire on a cold winter evening. You feel uncomfortably cold, so you throw another log into the fire. In this scenario, the process variable is temperature. Is this true or false? In this example and in most instances, the measured variable is also the process variable.

The measured variable is the condition of the process fluid that must be kept at the designated setpoint. Sometimes the measured variable is not the same as the process variable. For example, a manufacturer may measure flow into and out of a storage tank to determine tank level. In this scenario, flow is the measured variable, and the process fluid level is the process variable. The factor that is changed to keep the measured variable at setpoint is called the manipulated variable.

In the example described, the manipulated variable would also be flow Figure 7. Variables ERRORError is the difference between the measured variable and the setpoint and can be either positive or negative. The objective of any control scheme is to minimize or eliminate error. Therefore, it is imperative that error be well understood. Any error can be seen as having three major components. These three components are shown in the figure on the folowing page MagnitudeThe magnitude of the error is simply the deviation between the values of the setpoint and the process variable.

The magnitude of error at any point in time compared to the previous error provides the basis for determining the change in error.

The change in error is also an important value. Activities DurationDuration refers to the length of time that an error condition has existed.

Rate Of ChangeThe rate of change is shown by the slope of the error plot. In the temperature control loop example, if the control system held the process fluid at In the temperature control loop example, adding cold process fluid to the vessel would be a load disturbance because it would lower the temperature of the process fluid.

Using the temperature control loop example, V in the equation below is the fuel valve position, and e is the error. Algorithm ExampleControl algorithms can be used to calculate the requirements of much more complex control loops than the one described here.

In more complex control loops, questions such as "How far should the valve be opened or closed in response to a given change in setpoint? For example, a human operator might have watched a level gauge and closed a valve when the level reached the setpoint. Control operations that involve human action to make an adjustment are called manual control systems. Conversely, control operations in which no human intervention is required, such as an automatic valve actuator that responds to a level controller, are called automatic control systems.

An open control loop exists where the process variable is not compared, and action is taken not in response to feedback on the condition of the process variable, but is instead taken without regard to process variable conditions.

For example, a water valve may be opened to add cooling water to a process to prevent the process fluid from getting too hot, based on a pre-set time interval, regardless of the actual temperature of the process fluid.

In addition, this section describes how process control equipment is represented in technical drawings of control loops. Some of the greatest ingenuity in the process control field is apparent in sensing devices. Because sensing devices are the first element in the control loop to measure the process variable, they are also called primary elements.

For example, when a conductive fluid passes through the magnetic field in a magnetic flow tube, the fluid generates a voltage that is directly proportional to the velocity of the process fluid.

The primary element magnetic flow tube outputs a voltage that can be measured and used to calculate the fluid's flow rate. With an RTD, as the temperature of a process fluid surrounding the RTD rises or falls, the electrical resistance of the RTD increases or decreases a proportional amount.

The resistance is measured, and from this measurement, temperature is determined.

Fundamentals of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control

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INSTRUMENTATION AND COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEMS However, we can see how to engineer basic filter circuits with gain if we consider the inverting​.


Instrumentation and Control System - ICS Study Materials

Instrumentation is a collective term for measuring instruments that are used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities. The term has its origins in the art and science of scientific instrument-making. Instrumentation can refer to devices as simple as direct-reading thermometers , or as complex as multi-sensor components of industrial control systems.

Instrumentation and Process Control is a technician-level approach to instrumentation and control techniques used in advanced manufacturing. Chapter 11 describes the historical development of instrument control with the use of the personal computer, as well as different connectivity interface buses and software support for both stand-alone and modular instrumentation. Learning Guide - Process Instrumentation I iv 1. Introduction,

Book Detail: Instrumentation and Process Control. Outlines of Dairy: Technology. Module 1: Instruments and measurement system Lesson 1.

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Instrumentation & Control Process Control Fundamentals

Source : ourmumbaicity. Handbook for Control Valve Sizing — page not available. Probably many other are in the same situation.

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Instrumentation & Control Process Control Fundamentals

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