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- Demeter and Persephone, the Story of Abduction.pdf
- Rachel Cameron and the myth of Demeter and Persephone
- Demeter and Persephone
Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Translated by Gregory Nagy.
Show all documents First, a transposition of a particular work into another, as in the myth that is formed into a poem. Second, the act of adaptation always involves two processes; re-interpretation and then re-creation that is why the slight changes are found in adaptation of the myth of Demeter and Persephone between the two poets, they tend to emphasize their views and address different themes.
Demeter and Persephone, the Story of Abduction.pdf
Myth has many definitions 1. Being one of the many functions of ration alongside language, religion, art and science, myth strives to identify the part within a larger whole, i. It does not explain the reasons, but speaks of what happened and what will happen 4.
In addition to myths, narrative ritual mime 5 was also one segment of religious life which was publicly performed during popular folk festivals. If we accept this notion of myth and its religious ritual performances, then Demeter's quest for Persephone is more than a myth, it is a tale that sublimes elements of philosophical allegory along with a symbolic as well as realistic narration hidden in different layers of the mythological story.
The tale of the lonely and grieved Mother Demeter , who wanders across the world trying to find her lost Daughter-Maiden Kore , is a traditional tale from the period when male principle overthrew the laws of the matriarchate.
The trinity, later duality of one Virgin goddess is identified in historical periods as the Mother goddess -Demeter and the Daugher goddess -Persephone. Demeter's virginity, maidenhood and maternity determined her path toward the establishment of the Mother-Daughter cult in the so-called Eleusinian mysteries.
The first written data on the Eleusinian cult are given by Hesiod The Hymn to Demeter, which belongs to the corpus of the so called Homeric Hymns, was sang at the end of the 7 th century BC and at the beginning of the 6 th century 7 , but to this day remains the main source from which we derive most information about the cult. Many other sources give different layers and different variants of the Eleusinian tale. This is due to the fact that different Greek tribes during their settlement came in contact with various sedentary populations that had similar agricultural divinities and rites which they incorporated into their own pantheon.
Their common characteristics indicate that they are actually one dualistic or double deity of the Earth-goddess 9 with many functions, going through different stages from Virgin to Woman young and mature seed and caring old Mother Some say that when Demeter was still young, she was raped by her brother Zeus and gave birth to Kore and Iacchos She also fell in love with Titan Iasion during the wedding of Kadmos and Harmonia and gave birth to Ploutos After her daughter-Kore, known as Persephone, was taken away from her, Demeter was struck with grief.
The story goes on to say that Hades, the master of the Underworld, fell in love with the lovely virgin and asked Zeus to give his blessing to marry her. Zeus, who neither gave his approval nor denied it, gave an ambiguous answer both to his brother and sister Demeter, knowing that she would never forgive him if Kore were taken away from her by his approval.
Encouraged by the Zeus' answer, Hades snatched Kore while she was picking flowers in the field. Views on where this abduction could have taken place differed even during the ancient times.
Some believed it took place in Sicily, others in Attica, in the vicinity of Hermione or somewhere in Crete or near Lerne Some said it was near Phenaeus in Arcadia.
While searching for Kore, Demeter was raped by Poseidon 14 in Arcadia and it is noteworthy mentioning that a very old cult of Despoina 15 existed in Arcadia, which was probably related with the trinity deities identified in the tablets from Pylos as Des-potnia Another source said it was near the Nysian 17 plains, or whatever part of the world Demeter reached in her search for the beloved daughter.
One thing is certain, all these places were loca of mythological events related to goddesses of fertility under different names of Demeter, Persephone, Despoina, Potnia, Rhea, Gaea and today they are archeological topoi with remnants indicative of an Earth Goddess' cult.
However, the priests of the most dominant cult of Demeter and Kore said that Persephone was abducted in Eleusis. The story goes on to say that mother searched for Kore for nine days and nine nights without rest. On the tenth day, after an unpleasant meeting with Poseidon, she finally reached Eleusis. Disguised as an old woman 18 , she was kindly hosted in the house of the Eleusinian king Keleos and his wife Metanaera After some unpleasant events with Abanthos and shortly afterwards with Demophon, the sons of Keleos, Demeter finally revealed her divine identity.
To gain her favor, inhabitants of Eleusis built her a shrine and a temple. A young man, Triptolemos, to whom Demeter promised great success, announced the news she was searching for: ten days earlier his brothers Eumolpos and Eubuleus had taken the herd for pasture in the fields of Eleusis and saw the earth open swallowing Eubuleus' herd of pigs in front of his own eyes.
Shortly afterwards a carriage with black horses appeared on the surface with a terrifying roar and then fell into the abyss. The horseman's face was invisible but his hand, which could be seen, firmly held a Maiden who was crying for help. Rigoglioso,Virgin Mother Goddesses,p.
Rigoglioso, Virgin Mother Goddesses,p. Rigoglioso, Virgin Mother Goddesses, p. Demeter-Dionysos bond is evident in their common cult festival of Haloa, cf. Beograd, , p. Demeter's anger and grief were immense and no Olympian could comfort or "bribe" her with any gift. Disappointed and devastated Demeter went away, entered her temple and provoked a terrible infertility of soil not allowing the seeds to grow.
This was the worst famine as far as human memory could recall. People were in threat of death and gods could lose their due offerings. Zeus had to intervene. He ordered his brother Hades to give Persephone back to her mother and sent a message to his sister saying that she would have her beloved daughter again only if she had not tasted the food of the dead.
Hades had to give Persephone back. However, he arranged that Persephone taste pomegranate, thus ensuring her return and residence as the queen of the Underworld for one third of the year. The other two thirds 22 she would stay in the Upper World with her mother. This journey from the Upper-to the Underworld and back again reflects the cycle of seasonal growth, life and death and rebirth making an indivisible bond between Demeter, Persephone and Hades.
The meeting of mother and daughter was very emotional and a cause for a great festival among the people. Demeter finally allowed the seeds to grow and the fruits to mature. Before she departed to Olympus together with her daughter, she taught the rulers of Eleusis how to perform the rites of consecration in their honor which no one could ever violate or reveal to the unconsecrated.
This is how the rite of Mother and Daughter cult was established in Eleusis and how the female and male principle personified in Hades were reconciled through hieros gamos Demeter taught the royal members of the community the rites and mysteries. This indicates that the mysteries were not meant for all, but only for the chosen ones, the consecrated. This old religious ritual of pre-Helladic period 21 Cf.
The first is Thesmophoria, probably celebrating the parthenogenesis i. Karneia was later incorporated into festival that celebrated the Olympians, in this particular case Apollo, who had a role to play in relation to Admetus in the tale of Alkestis and her sacrifice for her husband.
Reminiscences of this ancient cult could be detected in the verses of chorus in Euripides' Alkestis 25 , which state that she would be remembered in the songs sung at the Karneian festival of Apollo in Sparta On the other hand, "…this very old, pre-Hellenic cult, became Athenian after Athenians conquered Eleusis. Around BC 27 , there was a great famine in Greece. The Delphic oracle ordered that Athenians give sacrifice to Demeter for all Greeks before ploughing.
After that, every year under the Athenian leadership all other Greek poleis gave the first of their grains and fruits to Demeter. This is how this local and afterwards Athenian cult of fertility, of life and death circle and prosperity, became pan-Hellenic, imposed by Athenian leadership" This was also justified by the "mythological fact" that "the establishment of the Eleusinian cults the cult of Attica is related to the mission of Triptolemos, whose duty was to teach people to cultivate the land.
This is also immanent in Plato's Menexenus e a that Attica "… of all the lands that then existed, she Attic was the first and the only one to produce human nourishment, namely the grain of wheat and barley, whereby the race of mankind is most richly and well nourished…".
Lakonophilus Xenophon gives another version, about Demeter sending Triptolemos to teach the humankind to sow grain. He brought the first seeds to Peloponnesos and taught Herakles and Kastor and Polydeukes the rites v. Shear Jr. The temple of Demeter at Eleusis was ruined several times, first by the Persians during their campaign in Greece and then by Sarmatians in BC. During Roman period Hellenophiloi emperors such as Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius, who rebuilt the ruined temple, took care of the Eleusinian cult.
The cult had a huge influence all over the Empire and the myth of the abduction and rape of Persephone inspired many artist With the appearance of Christianity and later its domination in the Empire, the cult consequently lost power and glory it once had, and eventually its influence. The temple was devastated during years and probably ruined by Alaric. Christians finally completely destroyed it and placed a new Christian church nearby.
During the Ottoman rule, on the Eleusinian territory, the cult remained in collective memory of local people in the story of Turkish abduction of a Christian woman's daughter. Other epic poems speak of an Arab's abduction of women or a woman, with whom the "Black Arab" finally runs away to his kingdom Even today, this folk tale is preserved in a local Serbian marriage ritual, according to which the future bride should not give her consent to marry, even if her parents had already arranged it.
This was considered inappropriate. So the bridegroom had to seize his future wife by force and take her from her paternal home There are other similar customs reminiscent of this very old male abduction of women. Almost every village in Serbia has its own custom, but the most common one says that during the wedding, the groom should try to snatch the bride and avoid meeting with the Athenian leaders, Alkibiades was accused and later condemned to death.
But the bride is well guarded. If he does not succeed in his attempt, the groom has to offer money or gifts to another male from her family, usually her brother, who considers the value of the gifts and then decides whether to give his sister away or not. Numerous members of the groom's family called svatovi, go with the groom to help him take the bride home once he wins her. They are supposed to protect the bride as she walks to her future house, guard her in case a violator appears.
Cases of abduction occurred when families, like Demeter in this particular case, did not agree with the marriage of their children. We have to have in mind that Persephone's hand was twice asked by Apollo, who offered the island of Delos, the city of Amikle and Klaros in Asia Minor 34 and Ares, who offered her the Rhodope mountains Demeter refused them and finally the god of the Underworld went crying to Zeus that he was the only lonely god in his vast kingdom.
Knowing that Persephone would not willingly become his wife, he snatched her from the field and gave her immense gifts such as gold, silver and all resources of the Upper world that eventually go to the Underworld.
Rachel Cameron and the myth of Demeter and Persephone
Zeus, the king of all the gods, had two brothers and three sisters. All the gods had jobs, but his sister Demeter had one of the most important jobs - she was in charge of the harvest. There were many temples in ancient Greece dedicated to Demeter. Nearly everyone, gods and mortals, did their best to keep Demeter happy. If Demeter did not do her job, the crops would die and everyone would starve.
Demeter and Persephone
First of all, some general facts of a mother-daughter relationship are given, in order to establish a relationship to the principal topic of this research paper, from Jungian theory to Eleusinian mysteries. Next, the close relation between life, death and fertility is to be investigated, in order to establish another relationship between myth and novel, and, further, it shall be investigated, in how far Demeter is represented in the protagonist Rachel and not only in her mother May. In opposition to the eternal dyad between mother and son, which, according to Adrienne Rich, is always the representation in divinity, sociology, art and psychoanalytic theory  , Laurence, in her novel A Jest of God , narrates the story of the close bonding between Rachel Cameron and her mother May. According to Nancy Bailey, Laurence can be regarded as a Jungian writer:. Thirty-four-year-old Rachel Cameron, works as a schoolteacher in the fictitious town of Manawaka.
Дворик под названием Апельсиновый сад прославился благодаря двум десяткам апельсиновых деревьев, которые приобрели в городе известность как место рождения английского мармелада. В XVI11 веке некий английский купец приобрел у севильской церкви три десятка бушелей апельсинов и, привезя их в Лондон, обнаружил, что фрукты горькие и несъедобные. Он попытался сделать из апельсиновой кожуры джем, но чтобы можно было взять его в рот, в него пришлось добавить огромное количество сахара.
Понимаю. - В голосе звонившего по-прежнему чувствовалась нерешительность. - Ну, тогда… надеюсь, хлопот не. - Отлично. Он обедает там сегодня с одной из наших сопровождающих. - Ролдан понимал, что сейчас они скорее всего лежат в постели, но ему не хотелось оскорблять чувства звонившего. - Оставьте паспорт у администратора, его зовут Мануэль.
- Я понял, что Цифровую крепость не следует останавливать. Сьюзан смотрела на него в растерянности. Стратмор продолжал: - Внезапно я увидел в Цифровой крепости шанс, который выпадает раз в жизни. Ведь если внести в код ряд изменений, Цифровая крепость будет работать на нас, а не против. Ничего более абсурдного Сьюзан слышать еще не доводилось.
- Кроме того, ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже больше двадцати часов не может справиться с каким-то файлом. Фонтейн наморщил лоб. - Это по вашим данным. Мидж хотела возразить, но прикусила язык. И прижала ладонь к горлу.
Танкадо звонил мне в прошлом месяце, - сказал Стратмор, прервав размышления Сьюзан. - Танкадо звонил вам? - удивилась. Он кивнул: - Чтобы предупредить. - Предупредить.
- Она мертва. Беккер обернулся как во сне. - Senor Becker? - прозвучал жуткий голос. Беккер как завороженный смотрел на человека, входящего в туалетную комнату. Он показался ему смутно знакомым.
Последний щит угрожающе таял.
Ничего серьезного, - ответила Сьюзан, хотя вовсе не была в этом уверена. Следопыт задерживается. Она подумала, не ошиблась ли где-то. Начала просматривать длинные строки символов на экране, пытаясь найти то, что вызвало задержку.
Лампы, замигав, зажглись. Беккер поставил коробку на пол и подошел к столу. Наклонился и осмотрел пальцы левой руки.
Хейл в шоке отпрянул, поняв, что она не шутит: Сьюзан Флетчер никогда еще до него не дотрагивалась, даже руки не коснулась. Правда, это было не то прикосновение, какое он рисовал в воображении, представляя себе их первый физический контакт, но все же… Хейл долго с изумлением смотрел на нее, затем медленно повернулся и направился к своему терминалу. Одно ему было абсолютно ясно: распрекрасная Сьюзан Флетчер бьется над чем-то очень важным, и можно поклясться, что это никакая не диагностика.