Definition Of Pollution And Types Of Pollution Pdf

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You hear about pollution all the time.

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms.


Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer.

Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight.

In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. Air pollution is a major problem of recent decades, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. The sources of pollution vary from small unit of cigarettes and natural sources such as volcanic activities to large volume of emission from motor engines of automobiles and industrial activities.

Air pollution has now emerged in developing countries as a result of industrial activities and also increase the quantity of emission sources such as inappropriate vehicles. Ahvaz is the most air polluted city in the world with microdust blowing in from neighboring countries, and particulate levels three times that of Beijing, and nearly 13 times that of London. The present article is neither a systematic review nor a descriptive, educational study. It is a problem-based descriptive review in which the authors try to explain a problem which is the major health and ecological problem in developing countries like Iran.

In this review, we have tried to summarize the toxicology of air pollutants and related diseases with a possible mechanism of action and appropriate management of the patients.

Therefore, it shall be useful for the environmental and health professionals particularly policy makers, emergency physicians, and other clinicians who may be involved in air pollution and related diseases. In this paper, we also discuss sources of air pollution and proposed some feasible solutions which may be beneficial for the environmental legislators and decision makers.

It is made up of many kinds of pollutants including materials in solid, liquid, and gas phases. The Pollutant Standard Index PSI is a numerical value and indicator of pollutants that is normally used to facilitate risk assessment. It is a numeric value between zero to According to Johnson et al. It provides a number from healthy standard level of zero to a very hazardous level of above to indicate the level of health risk associated with air quality. Based on PSI, air quality is classified into six major indices, which is marked by color codes and each color corresponds to a different level of health concerns.

Principally, green is defined as a color indicator for healthy air quality; while yellow, orange, red, purple, and maroon colors indicate as moderate, unhealthy for sensitive groups, unhealthy, very unhealthy, and hazardous air quality, respectively. These ranges and codes may differ in the different methods of classifications in different countries. Effects of air pollutants on living organism will not only be limited to the human and animal health but also include the whole environment.

Different geographical conditions, global climate changes, and the environmental variations affect the human health and the environment including the animal life. Ecologically, air pollution can cause serious environmental damages to the groundwater, soil, and air. Studies on the relationship between air pollution and reducing species diversity clearly show the detrimental effects of environmental contaminants on the extinction of animals and plants species.

Every material in the air which could affect human health or have a profound impact on the environment is defined as air pollutants. According to the World Health Organization WHO , particle pollution, ground-level O 3 , CO, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead Pb are the six major air pollutants which harm human health and also the ecosystem. There are many pollutants of suspended materials such as dust, fumes, smokes, mists, gaseous pollutants, hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds VOCs , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , and halogen derivatives in the air which at the high concentrations cause vulnerability to many diseases including different types of cancers.

Particle pollutants are major parts of air pollutants. In a simple definition, they are a mixture of particles found in the air. Particle pollution which is more known as PM is linked with most of pulmonary and cardiac-associated morbidity and mortality.

The size of particle pollutants is directly associated with the onset and progression of the lungs and heart diseases. Particles of smaller size reach the lower respiratory tract and thus have greater potential for causing the lungs and heart diseases. Depending on the level of exposure, particulate pollutants may cause mild to severe illnesses. Wheezing, cough, dry mouth, and limitation in activities due to breathing problems are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of respiratory disease resulted from air pollution.

Long-term exposure to current ambient PM concentrations may lead to a marked reduction in life expectancy. The increase of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality are the main reasons for the reduction in life expectancy. Reduced lung functions in children and adults leading to asthmatic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD are also serious diseases which induce lower quality of life and reduced life expectancy.

Strong evidence on the effect of long-term exposure to PM on cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary mortality come from cohort studies. O 3 with the chemical formula of O 3 is a colorless gas which is the major constituent of the atmosphere. It is found both at the ground level and in the upper regions of the atmosphere which is called troposphere. GLO is believed to have a plausible association with increased risk of respiratory diseases, particularly asthma. As a powerful oxidant, O 3 accepts electrons from other molecules.

There is a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the surface fluid lining of the respiratory tract and cell membranes that underlie the lining fluid. The double bonds available in these fatty acids are unstable.

O 3 attacks unpaired electron to form ozonides and progress through an unstable zwitterion or trioxolane depending on the presence of water. These ultimately recombine or decompose to lipohydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide.

These pathways are thought to initiate propagation of lipid radicals and auto-oxidation of cell membranes and macromolecules. It also increases the risk of DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes, which leads to impaired cellular function. O 3 induces a variety of toxic effects in humans and experimental animals at concentrations that occur in many urban areas.

CO is a colorless and odorless gas, which is produced by fossil fuel, particularly when combustion is not appropriate, as in burning coal and wood. The affinity of CO to hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier in the body is about times greater than that of oxygen.

Depending on CO concentration and length of exposure, mild to severe poisoning may occur. Symptoms of CO poisoning may include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and finally loss of consciousness. The symptoms are very similar to those of other illnesses, such as food poisoning or viral infections. Hypoxia, apoptosis, and ischemia are known mechanisms of underlying CO toxicity.

Thus, the reduction in ambient CO can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction in predisposed persons. SO 2 is a colorless, highly reactive gas, which is considered as an important air pollutant.

It is mostly emitted from fossil fuel consumption, natural volcanic activities, and industrial processes. SO 2 is very harmful for plant life, animal, and human health. People with lung disease, children, older people, and those who are more exposed to SO 2 are at higher risk of the skin and lung diseases.

The major health concerns associated with exposure to high concentrations of SO 2 include respiratory irritation and dysfunction, and also aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease.

SO 2 is predominantly absorbed in the upper airways. As a sensory irritant, it can cause bronchospasm and mucus secretion in humans. The penetration of SO 2 into the lungs is greater during mouth breathing compared to nose breathing.

An increase in the airflow in deep, rapid breathing enhances penetration of the gas into the deeper lung. Therefore, people who exercise in the polluted air would inhale more SO 2 and are likely to suffer from greater irritation. When SO 2 deposits along the airway, it dissolves into surface lining fluid as sulfite or bisulfite and is easily distributed throughout the body.

It seems that the sulfite interacts with sensory receptors in the airways to cause local and centrally mediated bronchoconstriction. Due to its solubility in water, SO 2 is responsible for acid rain formation and acidification of soils. SO 2 reduces the amount of oxygen in the water causing the death of marine species including both animals and plants. Exposure to SO 2 can cause damages to the eyes lacrimation and corneal opacity , mucous membranes, the skin redness, and blisters , and respiratory tracts.

Bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and acute airway obstruction are the most common clinical findings associated with exposure to SO 2. Nitrogen oxides are important ambient air pollutants which may increase the risk of respiratory infections.

They are deep lung irritants that can induce pulmonary edema if been inhaled at high levels. They are generally less toxic than O 3 , but NO 2 can pose clear toxicological problems. Exposures at 2. Although these levels may be high, epidemiologic studies demonstrate effects of NO 2 on respiratory infection rates in children. Coughing and wheezing are the most common complication of nitrogen oxides toxicity, but the eyes, nose or throat irritations, headache, dyspnea, chest pain, diaphoresis, fever, bronchospasm, and pulmonary edema may also occur.

In another report, it is suggested that the level of nitrogen oxide between 0. Pb or plumb is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in different industries. It is emitted from motor engines, particularly with those using petrol containing Pb tetraethyl. Smelters and battery plants, as well as irrigation water wells and wastewaters, are other emission sources of the Pb into the environment.

Because it is not readily excreted, Pb can also affect the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and the other organs. Pb absorption by the lungs depends on the particle size and concentration. Retained Pb absorption through alveoli is absorbed and induces toxicity. Pb is a powerful neurotoxicant, especially for infants and children as the high-risk groups. Mental retardation, learning disabilities, impairment of memory, hyperactivity, and antisocial behaviors are of adverse effects of Pb in childhood.

Pb exposure is often chronic, without obvious symptoms. Pb may also replace calcium as a second messenger resulting in protein modification through various cellular processes including protein kinase activation or deactivation. Abdominal pain, anemia, aggression, constipation, headaches, irritability, loss of concentration and memory, reduced sensations, and sleep disorders are the most common symptoms of Pb poisoning. Exposure to Pb is manifested with numerous problems, such as high blood pressure, infertility, digestive and renal dysfunctions, and muscle and joint pain.

Other major air pollutants that are classified as carcinogen and mutagen compounds and are thought to be responsible for incidence and progression of cancer in human include VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, PAHs such as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and benzopyrene, and other organic pollutants such as dioxins, which are unwanted chemical pollutants that almost totally produced by industrial processes and human activity.

In Table 1 , the standard level of some conventional air pollutants is presented in which the values were defined as air quality standards that provide public welfare protection.

Standard level of criteria air pollutants and their sources with health impact based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Air Pollution

In the case of contaminants which occur naturally in soil, even when their levels are not high enough to pose a risk, soil pollution is still said to occur if the levels of the contaminants in soil exceed the levels that should naturally be present. All soils, whether polluted or unpolluted, contain a variety of compounds contaminants which are naturally present. Such contaminants include metals, inorganic ions and salts e. These compounds are mainly formed through soil microbial activity and decomposition of organisms e. Additionally, various compounds get into the soil from the atmosphere, for instance with precipitation water, as well as by wind activity or other types of soil disturbances, and from surface water bodies and shallow groundwater flowing through the soil. When the amounts of soil contaminants exceed natural levels what is naturally present in various soils , pollution is generated.

Air Pollution. Intro Section Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. Noise pollution cancause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects. The presentation begins with definition of pollution and dives into different types of pollution, their causes and effects, and how they can be avoided.

• Environment Pollution is the addition of contaminants into the natural environment that. causes detrimental effects to nature, natural resources and mankind. • Any unnatural and negative changes in all the dimensions like chemical, physical and.

Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and mold spores may be suspended as particles. Ozone , a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities.

Pollution , also called environmental pollution , the addition of any substance solid , liquid , or gas or any form of energy such as heat , sound, or radioactivity to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution , light pollution , and plastic pollution. Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being.

The term "pollution" refers to any substance that negatively impacts the environment or organisms that live within the affected environment. The five major types of pollution include: air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, light pollution, and noise pollution. A major source of air pollution results from the burning of fossil fuels.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In , pollution killed 9 million people worldwide.


Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer.

We tend to look skywards when talking about pollution, but this problem is not confined to our skies. The soil in which our fruit and vegetables grow is also suffering its consequences, the effects of which getting to us directly, for instance, through the aforementioned foodstuffs. The time has come to look after what lies under our feet! Soil pollution is mostly caused by chemical substances produced by human activity. The soil is the skin of the earth, a mantle full of scars, thousand-year-old wrinkles and more recent injuries caused both by man and nature itself. Some of these ulcers are incurable — such as the extinction of species —, whereas others jeopardise health and food security, all of which threaten the well-being of the world's 3. This invisible affliction appears when the concentration of pollutants on the surface becomes so high that it harms land biodiversity and endangers health, particularly through food.

Basic Definition: Pollution is a negative/undesirable change in the environment, usually the addition of something hazardous or detrimental.

What Causes Pollution

Чатрукьян вдруг обрел прежнюю уверенность. - Цепная мутация, сэр. Я проделал анализ и получил именно такой результат - цепную мутацию. Теперь Сьюзан поняла, почему сотрудник систем безопасности так взволнован. Цепная мутация. Она знала, что цепная мутация представляет собой последовательность программирования, которая сложнейшим образом искажает данные. Это обычное явление для компьютерных вирусов, особенно таких, которые поражают крупные блоки информации.

Он явно не верил своим ушам. - Dov'ela plata. Где деньги. Беккер достал из кармана пять ассигнаций по десять тысяч песет и протянул мотоциклисту. Итальянец посмотрел на деньги, потом на свою спутницу. Девушка схватила деньги и сунула их в вырез блузки.

What Are the 7 Different Types of Pollution?

Стратмор нахмурился: - Танкадо намерен назвать победителя аукциона завтра в полдень. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее сводит желудок. - А что. - Он говорит, что вручит победителю ключ.

Где она изучала математику. Как она попала в АНБ. Как ей удалось стать столь привлекательной. Покраснев, Сьюзан сказала, что созрела довольно поздно. Чуть ли не до двадцати лет она была худой и нескладной и носила скобки на зубах, так что тетя Клара однажды сказала, что Господь Бог наградил ее умом в утешение за невзрачные внешние данные.

Сам придумал. - А кто же еще! - ответил тот с гордостью.  - Хочу его запатентовать.

 Может быть, сказала, куда идет. - Нет. По-испански говорила очень плохо.

Types of Pollutants

Меган сказала, что, если тереть глаза, будет только хуже. Он даже представить себе не может, насколько хуже.

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