File Name: reali m and naturali m in nineteenth century american literature .zip
- Teaching Gender
- The Politics of Utopia and Dystopia in Late Twentieth-Century Black Literature
Thomson Learning is For permission to use material from this text or a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any meansgraphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution or information storage and retrieval systemswithout the written permission of the publisher.
This book defines and discusses terms, critical theories, and points of view that are commonly used to classify, analyze, interpret, and write the history of works of literature. The individual entries, together with the guides to further reading included in most of them, are oriented especially toward undergradu- ate students of English, American, and other literatures.
Over the decades, however, they have proved to be a useful work of reference also for advanced students, as well as for the general reader with literary interests. The Glossary presents a series of succinct essays in the alphabetic order of the title word or phrase. Terms that are related but subsidiary, or that desig- nate subclasses, are treated under the title heading of the primary or generic term; also, words that are commonly used in conjunction or as mutually defining contraries distance and involvement, empathy and sympathy, narrat and narratology are discussed in the same entry.
The alternative organization of a literary handbook as a dictionary of terms, defined singly, makes dull reading and requires excessive repitition and cross-indexing; it may also be misleading, because the use and application of many terms become clear only in the context of other concepts to which they are related, subordinated, or opposed.
The essay form makes it feasible to supplement the definition of a term with indications of its changes in meaning over time and of its diversity in current usage, in order to help readers to steer their way through the shift- ing references and submerged ambiguities of its literary applications.
In addi- tion, the discursive way of treating more or less technical terms provides the author with an opportunity to write entries that are readable as well as useful. In each entry, boldface indicates terms for which the entry provides the prin- cipal discussion; italics identify terms that occur in the entry but are discussed more fully elsewhere in the Glossary, on pages that are specified in the Index of Terms.
The purpose of this new edition is to keep the entries current with the rapid and incessant changes in the literary and critical scene, to take into ac- count new publications in literature, criticism, and scholarship, and to take advantage of suggestions for improvements and additions, some of them so- licited by the publisher but many generously volunteered by users of the Glos- sary.
All the entries have been rewritten and a number have been drastically recast, especially those which describe the innovative and rapidly evolving critical theories of the last several decades. In each entry, the list of suggested readings has been brought up to the date of this revision. Books originally published in non-English languages are listed in their English trans- lations. This edition discusses more than one-hundred new terms; and in re- sponse to requests by a number of users, each of the following items has been given a substantial new entry: alienation effect; antihero; author and authorship; Black Arts Movement; cultural studies; deism; edition; epic theater; golden a haiku; Harlem Renaissance; metaphor, theories of; narration, grammar of; pos nial studies; Pre-Raphaelites; queer theory; science fiction and fantasy; socialist ism; sublime; textual criticism; Victorian and Victorianism.
For the greater convenience of the user, the entries hitherto gathered in a special section, "Modern Theories of Literature and Criticism," have now been distributed into the alphabetic order of the other entries in the Glossary. A new entry, theories of criticism, current, lists the sequence of these move- ments, together with the approximate time when they became prominent in literary criticism, from Russian formalism in the s and 30s to postcolonial studies and queer theory in the s.
An additional feature in this edition, re- quested by many users, is an Index of Authors, which precedes the Index of Terms at the end of the volume and lists all the significant references in the Glossary to authors and their writings.
How to Use the "tossary " To find the exposition of a literary term or phrase, always look it up in the Index of Terms, which is printed at the end of the volume; to make this Index easy to find, the outside edges of its pages are colored black.
Although the separate entries in the Glossary are in the alphabetical order of their title terms, the greater number of terms are defined and discussed within the text of these entries, and so must be located by referring to the Index.
In the Index of Terms, readers will find, in boldface, the page number of the principal dis- cussion of the term; this is followed by the page numbers, in italics, of the oc- currences of the term in other entries that clarify its meaning and illustrate its functioning in critical usage.
Note that the term referred to by a secondary, italicized reference may be a modified form of the index term; the forms "par- odies" and "parodie," for example, refer to the entry on "parody. Some of the more general or inclusive items in the Index are supple- mented by a list of closely related terms.
These references expedite for the student the fuller exploration of a topic, and also make it easier for a teacher to locate entries that serve the needs of a particular subject of study. This edition, like earlier ones, has profited from the suggestions of teach- ers, and often also students, who proposed changes and additions that would enhance the usefulness of the Glossary to the broad range of courses in Amer- ican, English, and foreign literatures. I welcome this opportunity to thank Nate Johnson, who served as my research assistant during a postgraduate year at Cornell; his wide-ranging knowledge and critical acumen have led to many improvements in the substance and phrasing of this version of the Glossary.
Dianne Ferriss has been of great assistance in preparing and correcting the text of this edition. I am especially grateful for the valuable suggestions by Sean M. All these advisers, friends, and co-workers have helped me come closer to the goal announced in the original edition: to write the kind of handbook that I would have found most valuable when, as an undergraduate, I was an eager but sometimes bewildered student of literature and criticism.
To find a literary word or phrase, always look it up in the Index of Terms at the end of this volume; the outer edges of this Index are stained black. Although the individual entries in the Glossary are in the alphabetic order of their title terms, the larger number of terms are discussed within the text of these en- tries, so that the page numbers of these discussions must be located by refer- ring to the Index.
For explanation of the typographical cues in the entries and in the Index, refer to the section of the Preface, above, entitled "How to Use the Glossary. Soon you will find Harcourt Brace's distinguished innovation, leadership, and support under a different name. We are combining the strengths of our college imprints into one worldwide brand: 1 Harcourt Our mission is to make learning accessible to anyone, anywhere, anytimereinforcing our commitment to lifelong learning.
Absurd, Literature of the. The term is applied to a number of works in drama and prose fiction which have in common the sense that the human condition is essentially absurd, and that this condition can be adequately rep- resented only in works of literature that are themselves absurd. The literature has its roots also in the movements of expressionism and surrealism, as well as in the fiction, writ- ten in the s, of Franz Kafka The Trial, Metamorphosis.
The current move ment, however, emerged in France after the horrors of World War II, as a rebellion against essential beliefs and values of traditional culture and tradi- tional literature. This earlier tradition had included the assumptions that human beings are fairly rational creatures who live in an at least partially in- telligible universe, that they are part of an ordered social structure, and that they may be capable of heroism and dignity even in defeat.
After the s, however, there was a widespread tendency, especially prominent in the exis- tential philosophy of men of letters such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, to view a human being as an isolated existent who is cast into an alien uni- verse, to conceive the universe as possessing no inherent truth, value, or meaning, and to represent human lifein its fruitless search for purpose and meaning, as it moves from the nothingness whence it came toward the noth- ingness where it must endas an existence which is both anguished and ab- surd.
As Camus said in The Myth of Sisyphus , In a universe that is suddenly deprived of illusions and of light, man feels a stranger. His is an irremediable exile This divorce between man and his life, the actor and his setting, truly constitutes the feeling of Absurdity.
Or as Eugne Ionesco, French author of The Bald Soprano , The Lesson , and other plays in the theater of the absurd, has put it: "Cut off from his religious, metaphysical, and transcendental roots, man is lost; all his ac- tions become senseless, absurd, useless. Waiting for Godot presents two tramps in a waste place, fruitlessly and all but hopelessly waiting for an unidentified person, Godot, who may or may not exist and with whom they sometimes think they remember that they may have an ap- pointment; as one of them remarks, "Nothing happens, nobody comes, no- body goes, it's awful.
The lucid but eddying and pointless dialogue is often funny, and pratfalls and other modes of slapstick are used to project the alienation and tragic anguish of human ex- istence.
Beckett's prose fiction, such as Malone Dies and The Unnamable , present an antihero who plays out the absurd moves of the end game of civilization in a nonwork which tends to undermine the coherence of its medium, language itself. But typically Beckett's characters carry on, even if in a life without purpose, trying to make sense of the senseless and to communi- cate the uncommunicable.
Another French playwright of the absurd was Jean Genet who combined absurdism and diabolism ; some of the early dramatic works of the English- man Harold Pinter and the American Edward Albee are in a similar mode. The plays of Tom Stoppard, such as Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead and Travesties , exploit the devices of absurdist theater more for comic than philosophical ends. There are also affinities with this movement in the numerous recent works which exploit black comedy or black humor: bale- ful, naive, or inept characters in a fantastic or nightmarish modern world play out their roles in what Ionesco called a "tragic farce," in which the events are often simultaneously comic, horrifying, and absurd.
Stanley Kubrick's Dr. Strangelove is an example of black comedy in the cinema. More recently, some playwrights living in totalitarian regimes have used absurdist techniques to register social and political protest. Hinchliffe, The Absurd ; Max F. Act and Scene. An act is a major division in the action of a play.
Roman plays by structuring the action into five acts. Late in the nineteenth century a number of writers followed the example of Chekhov and Ibsen by constructing plays in four acts. In the present century the most common form for nonmusical dramas has been three acts. Acts are often subdivided into scenes, which in modern plays usually consist of units of action in which there is no change of place or break in the continuity of time. Some recent plays dispense with the division into acts and are structured as a sequence of scenes, or episodes.
In the conventional theater with a proscenium arch that frames the front of the stage, the end of a scene is usually indicated by a dropped curtain or a dimming of the lights, and the end of an act by a dropped curtain and an intermission. Aestheticism, or the Aesthetic Movement, was a European phenomenon during the latter nineteenth century that had its chief headquarters in France.
In opposition to the dominance of scientific thinking, and in defiance of the widespread indifference or hostility of the middle-class society of their time to any art that was not useful or did not teach moral values, French writers de- veloped the view that a work of art is the supreme value among human prod- ucts precisely because it is self-sufficient and has no use or moral aim outside its own being.
The end of a work of art is simply to exist in its formal perfection; that is, to be beautiful and to be contemplated as an end in itself. A rallying cry of Aestheticism became the phrase "l'art pour l'art"art for art's sake. The historical roots of Aestheticism are in the views proposed by the Ger- man philosopher Immanuel Kant in his Critique of Judgment that the "pure" aesthetic experience consists of a "disinterested" contemplation of an object that "pleases for its own sake," without reference to reality or to the "external" ends of utility or morality.
As a self-conscious movement, however, French Aestheticism is often said to date from Thophile Gautier's witty de- fense of his assertion that art is useless preface to Mademoiselle de Maupin, Aestheticism was developed by Baudelaire, who was greatly influenced by Edgar Allan Poe's claim in "The Poetic Principle," that the supreme work is a "poem per se," a "poem written solely for the poem's sake"; it was later taken up by Flaubert, Mallarm, and many other writers.
In its extreme form, the aesthetic doctrine of art for art's sake veered into the moral and quasi-religious doctrine of life for art's sake, with the artist represented as a priest who renounces the practical concerns of ordinary existence in the serv- ice of what Flaubert and others called "the religion of beauty. Whistler and Aubrey Beardsley. The influence of ideas stressed in Aestheticismespecially the view of the "autonomy" self-sufficiency of a work of art, the emphasis on craft and artistry, and the concept of a poem or novel as an end in itself and as invested with "intrinsic" valueshas been important in the writings of prominent twentieth-century authors such as W.
Yeats, T. Hulme, and T. Eliot, as well as in the literary theory of the New Crtics. For related developments, see decadence and ivory tower. Johnson, Aestheticism For the intellectual and social conditions during the eigh- teenth century that fostered the theory that a work of art is an end in itself, see M.
Usef collections of writings in the Aesthetic Movement are Ian Small, ed. A useful descriptive guide to books on the subject is Linda C.
Affective Fallacy. In an essay published in , W. Wimsatt and Mon- roe C. Beardsley defined the affective fallacy as the error of evaluating a poem by its effectsespecially its emotional effectsupon the reader. As a result of this fallacy "the poem itself, as an object of specifically critical judgment, tends to disappear," so that criticism "ends in impressionism and relativism.
Richards, in his in- fluential Principles of Literary Criticism , that the value of a poem can be measured by the psychological responses it incites in its readers. Beardsley has since modified the earlier claim by the admission that "it does not appear that critical evaluation can be done at all except in relation to certain types of ef- fect that aesthetic objects have upon their perceivers.
An extreme reaction against the doctrine of the affective fallacy was manifested during the s in the devel- opment of reader-response criticism. Beardsley, Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism , p. See also Wimsatt and Beardsley's related concept of the intentional fallacy.
Alienation Effect. In his epic theater of the s and later, the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht adapted the Russian formalist concept of "defamiliariza- tion" into what he called the "alienation effect" Verfremdungseffekt.
This effect, Brecht said, is used to make familiar aspects of the present social reality seem strange, so as to prevent the emotional identification or in- volvement of the audience with the characters and their actions in a play.
His aim was instead to evoke a critical distance and attitude in the spectators, in order to arouse them to take action against, rather than simply to accept, the state of society and behavior represented on the stage.
On Brecht, refer to Marxist criticism; for a related aesthetic concept, see distance and involvement. An allegory is a narrative, whether in prose or verse, in which the agents and actions, and sometimes the setting as well, are contrived by the author to make coherent sense on the "literal," or primary, level of significa- tion, and at the same time to signify a second, correlated order of signifi- cation.
Identity navigation: rethinking languages, literatures and cultures between challenges and misinterpretations edited by Nino Arrigo, Annalisa Bonomo e Karl Chircop Edizioni Sinestesie. Non ho dubbi che il potere oggi vincente in Italia, e non solo in Italia, liquiderebbe questa indicazione come un puro vezzo intellettuale e snobistico. Emma Bonino. This means that the truth about immigration and all its pertaining issues sometimes emerges more strongly in literary representation and crea- tion rather than in demographic and economic statistics, even though the former and the latter should suffice to undermine the predominant perception of the toxic and conspirational nature of a process which has always been associated with human experience and artistic crea- tion. As with all deepest fears, even that of the foreigner is a cultural con- cern and, to a large extent, its political antidotes have to be cultural ones. What is usually written and successfully spread about the phenomenon is most of the time false or commonly propagandistic. The rhetoric of invasion as a metaphor for the relationship between immigrants and natives has arrogantly won over public opinion.
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The Politics of Utopia and Dystopia in Late Twentieth-Century Black Literature
The coral trees genus Erythrina have been fostering great interest among the botanists and gardeners of Naples, since their arrival in Europe in the second half of the 18th century. Numerous species were present in the royal and private botanical gardens of the region, but their number has decreased today. The purpose of this work was to verify which species occur nowadays in the public areas of Naples and associate them with the historical information about their introduction. The identification was carried out also by molecular methods, by means of sequencing nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers. The comparison of the sequences obtained for the specimens present in Naples with those present in the literature, together with a morphological examination, allowed us to identify with accuracy the species anciently introduced or nowadays cultivated in Naples.
In philosophy , naturalism is the idea or belief that only natural laws and forces as opposed to supernatural or spiritual ones operate in the universe. Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of philosophical and religious systems; not so much a well-defined set of positive and negative doctrines as an attitude or spirit pervading and influencing many doctrines. As the name implies, this tendency consists essentially in looking upon nature as the one original and fundamental source of all that exists, and in attempting to explain everything in terms of nature. Either the limits of nature are also the limits of existing reality, or at least the first cause, if its existence is found necessary , has nothing to do with the working of natural agencies. All events, therefore, find their adequate explanation within nature itself.
Thomson Learning is For permission to use material from this text or a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any meansgraphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution or information storage and retrieval systemswithout the written permission of the publisher. This book defines and discusses terms, critical theories, and points of view that are commonly used to classify, analyze, interpret, and write the history of works of literature.
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Кровь из ноздрей капала прямо на нее, и она вся была перепачкана. Она чувствовала, как к ее горлу подступает тошнота. Его руки двигались по ее груди. Сьюзан ничего не чувствовала. Неужели он ее трогает. Она не сразу поняла, что он пытается застегнуть верхнюю пуговицу ее блузки.
Сегодня суббота, Грег. Могу задать тебе точно такой же вопрос. Однако она отлично знала, чем занимался Хейл. Он был законченным компьютерным маньяком.
Тут все без обмана. Он стоит десять раз по двадцать миллионов. - Увы, - сказал Нуматака, которому уже наскучило играть, - мы оба знаем, что Танкадо этого так не оставит. Подумайте о юридических последствиях. Звонивший выдержал зловещую паузу.
- У Стратмора стол ломится от заказов.